- Children's Repetitive and Intermittent Sprinting Performance (CRISP) Test: A new field-based test for assessing anaerobic power and repeated sprint performance in children with developmental coordination disorder. [Journal Article]Res Dev Disabil 2019; 93:103461RD
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that CRISP test could induce fatigue in children. The CRISP test was also found to have positive construct (i.e. known-group) validity. The differences in muscle power and endurance between children with p-DCD and TD peers tend to widen when assessments are performed with tests having high agility components.
- Prediction model for cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2019; 14(8):e0221352Plos
- Some variables including age, comorbidity of diabetes, and so on at dialysis initiation are associated with patient prognosis. Cardiovascular (CV) events are a major cause of death, and adequate models that predict prognosis in dialysis patients are warranted. Therefore, we created models using some variables at dialysis initiation. We used a database of 1,520 consecutive dialysis patients (media…
Some variables including age, comorbidity of diabetes, and so on at dialysis initiation are associated with patient prognosis. Cardiovascular (CV) events are a major cause of death, and adequate models that predict prognosis in dialysis patients are warranted. Therefore, we created models using some variables at dialysis initiation. We used a database of 1,520 consecutive dialysis patients (median age, 70 years; 492 women [32.4%]) from a multicenter prospective cohort study. We established the primary endpoint as a composite of the incidence of first CV events or all-cause death. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to construct a model. We considered a complex and a simple model. We used area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to assess and compare the predictive performances of the prediction models and evaluated the improvement in discrimination using the complex model versus the simple model using net reclassification improvement (NRI). We then assessed integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) to evaluate improvements in average sensitivity and specificity. Of 392 deaths, 152 were CV-related. Totally, 506 CV events occurred during the follow-up period (median 1,285 days). Finally, 692 patients reached the primary endpoint. Baseline data were set at dialysis initiation. AUROC for the primary endpoint was 0.737 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.712-0.761) in the simple model and 0.765 (95% CI, 0.741-0.788) in the complex model. There were significant intergroup differences in NRI (0.44; 95% CI, 0.34-0.53; p < 0.001) and IDI (0.02; 95% CI, 0.02-0.03; p < 0.001). We prepared a Shiny R application for each model to automatically calculate the predicted occurrence probability (https://statacademy.shinyapps.io/App_inaguma_20190717/). The complex model made more accurate predictions than the simple model. However, the intergroup difference was not significant. Hence, the simple model was more useful than the complex model. The tool was useful in a real-world clinical setting because it required only routinely available variables. Moreover, we emphasized that the tool could predict the incidence of CV events or all-cause mortality for individual patients. In the future, we must confirm its external validity in other prospective cohorts.
- Resolving Questions About the Validity of the CDC's Fluorosis Data. [Comment]JDR Clin Trans Res 2019; :2380084419871932JC
- The Emotional and Behavioral Impact of Delivering Bad News to Virtual versus Real Standardized Patients: A Pilot Study. [Journal Article]Teach Learn Med 2019; :1-11TL
- Phenomenon: Virtual standardized patients (vSPs) are becoming increasingly common in medical education, though one limitation of vSPs is the artificiality of computer-based simulators. Past research on the use of vSPs has not clearly established whether learners have different emotional responses to real SPs (rSPs) compared with vSPs; however, understanding learners' emotional responses to vSPs i…
Phenomenon: Virtual standardized patients (vSPs) are becoming increasingly common in medical education, though one limitation of vSPs is the artificiality of computer-based simulators. Past research on the use of vSPs has not clearly established whether learners have different emotional responses to real SPs (rSPs) compared with vSPs; however, understanding learners' emotional responses to vSPs is important in providing realistic learning experiences and establishing the validity of this teaching and assessment tool. This study compared the emotional experiences of individuals who interacted with rSPs and vSPs. Approach: Sixty medical students at a medical school in the southeastern United States participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to deliver bad news to an rSP or vSP. The vSP for this study used a hybrid intelligence model that allowed a person to "inhabit" the vSP. Salivary cortisol and a self-report measure of mood-the Profile of Mood States, Second Edition (POMS 2)-were gathered before and after delivering the bad news. The SP and 2 independent evaluators rated the behavioral performance of each participant in real and virtual conditions. Participants also rated the performance of the SP. Findings: Participants in both conditions reported increased negative emotionality on the POMS 2 following the SP interaction. There were no significant between-group differences on the POMS 2 or salivary cortisol concentration following the SP interaction. Ratings by the SP and independent evaluators indicated that participants performed similarly on most interpersonal dimensions, except tone of voice. Participants perceived the vSP as less realistic than the rSP. Insights: These results suggest that medical students may have similar emotional and behavioral responses when delivering bad news to a vSP when compared to an rSP. These findings provide support for the continued use of vSPs in training learners to deliver bad news and other communication-based skills and to assess their performance on these tasks.
- Insulinoma-associated protein 1 is a novel diagnostic marker of small cell lung cancer in bronchial brushing and cell block cytology from pleural effusions: Validity and reliability with cutoff value. [Journal Article]Cancer Cytopathol 2019CC
- CONCLUSIONS: INSM1 is a novel diagnostic marker for SCLC, and is useful in both bronchial brushing and pleural effusion cytology specimens. Because INSM1 generally is expressed in <10% of tumor cells in adenocarcinomas, determining an accurate cutoff value for INSM1 is important in the diagnosis of SCLC.
- Synthesizing and Reporting Milestones-Based Learner Analytics: Validity Evidence From a Longitudinal Cohort of Internal Medicine Residents. [Journal Article]Acad Med 2019AM
- CONCLUSIONS: The Scoring Grid Model and associated learner analytics data platform may provide a practical, reasonable solution for generating fine-grained, milestones-based profiles supporting resident progress.
- Translation, Validity, and Reliability of the Chinese Version of the Breast Cancer Survivor Self-efficacy Scale in China. [Journal Article]Cancer Nurs 2019 Sep/Oct; 42(5):E31-E40CN
- CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese version of BCSES appears to be culturally appropriate, reliable, and valid for assessing self-efficacy among patients with breast cancer in China.The Chinese version of BCSES could help measure the breast cancer patients' self-efficacy and provide evidence to develop culturally sensitive interventions for Chinese patients.
- Design and Evaluation of a Contextual Model for Information Retrieval From Web-Scale Discovery Services to Improve Evidence-Based Practice by Health Care Practitioners: Mixed Methods Study. [Journal Article]J Med Internet Res 2019; 21(8):e12621JM
- CONCLUSIONS: The context model for WSD satisfied all requirements and was evaluated successfully for information retrieval to improve EBP. Outcomes from this study justify further research into the model.
- Concurrent and predictive validity of the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form and the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index in older stroke rehabilitation patients. [Journal Article]J Hum Nutr Diet 2019JH
- CONCLUSIONS: The MNA-SF and the GNRI have a fair concurrent validity in stroke patients, although lower cut-off values than currently used were required for the MNA-SF. The GNRI exhibits good predictive validity for discharge destination.
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- Diagnosing and Treating Depression in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease. [Review]Neurol Ther 2019NT
- Although cognitive and functional impairment are the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with AD account for increased rates of disability and profoundly impact the quality of life of both patients and their caregivers. This narrative review of current evidence provides practical guidance in diagnosing and managing depression in patients with AD usi…
Although cognitive and functional impairment are the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with AD account for increased rates of disability and profoundly impact the quality of life of both patients and their caregivers. This narrative review of current evidence provides practical guidance in diagnosing and managing depression in patients with AD using pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. After apathy, depression is the second most common neuropsychiatric symptom in AD. Diagnosing late-life depression (LLD), particularly in those affected by AD, is complicated because older patients may not meet the criteria for a major depressive disorder. Clinically, late-life depression and dementia can be indistinguishable. Although these two entities are now thought to be related, the pathologic mechanisms remain unclear. Evidence suggests that LLD may be a prodromal symptom of neurodegenerative disease. The various geropsychiatric measures currently used to diagnose, rate the severity of, and monitor the progress of treatment for depression are imperfect. Neuroimaging represents a promising avenue toward understanding the complex pathophysiologic relationships between dementia and LLD, and will support the pursuit of biomarker-driven diagnosis and treatment. Nonpharmacologic interventions to relieve depression in persons with cognitive impairment and dementia include emotion-oriented therapies, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral modification programs, and structured activity programs. Sensory-stimulation therapies and multisensory approaches show some promise for successfully treating depression in patients with dementia, but further rigorous research is needed to establish their validity. Clinical consensus and research appear to support selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as a first choice for the pharmacological treatment of depression in patients with dementia. However, initial support for these therapies remains variable, and further investigation is needed. Extra care is required in prescribing to this population because of the generally high level of medical and psychiatric comorbidity and the potential difficulty in assessing the cognitively impaired patient's response.