- Diet and Lifestyle Before and During Pregnancy - Practical Recommendations of the Germany-wide Healthy Start - Young Family Network. [Journal Article]
- GFGeburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2018; 78(12):1262-1282
- Diet and exercise before and during pregnancy affect the course of the pregnancy, the child's development and the short- and long-term health of mother and child. The Healthy Start - Young Family Net...
Diet and exercise before and during pregnancy affect the course of the pregnancy, the child's development and the short- and long-term health of mother and child. The Healthy Start - Young Family Network has updated the recommendations on nutrition in pregnancy that first appeared in 2012 and supplemented them with recommendations on a preconception lifestyle. The recommendations address body weight before conception, weight gain in pregnancy, energy and nutritional requirements and diet (including a vegetarian/vegan diet), the supplements folic acid/folate, iodine, iron and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), protection against food-borne illnesses, physical activity before and during pregnancy, alcohol, smoking, caffeinated drinks, oral and dental hygiene and the use of medicinal products. Preparation for breast-feeding is recommended already during pregnancy. Vaccination recommendations for women planning a pregnancy are also included. These practical recommendations of the Germany-wide Healthy Start - Young Family Network are intended to assist all professional groups that counsel women and couples wishing to have children and during pregnancy with uniform, scientifically-based and practical information.
- Genomic approaches used to investigate an atypical outbreak of Salmonella Adjame. [Journal Article]
- MGMicrob Genom 2019 Jan 16
- In 2017, an outbreak of gastroenteritis in England attributed to Salmonella Adjame was detected and investigated. With the introduction of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for microbial typing, methods ...
In 2017, an outbreak of gastroenteritis in England attributed to Salmonella Adjame was detected and investigated. With the introduction of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for microbial typing, methods for comparing international outbreak data require evaluation. A case was defined as a person resident in England with a clinical sample from 1 June 2017 to 27 July 2017 from whom S. Adjame was isolated. Cases were interviewed and exposures analysed. Backward tracing of food provenance was undertaken. WGS was performed on isolates from cases and historical isolates and compared using Public Health England's SnapperDB high-quality SNP pipeline and Enterobase's Salmonella core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme. In total, 14 cases were identified. The majority were vegetarian, probably of South Asian descent, with a median age of 66.5 years with no recent international travel reported. Cases consumed a range of fresh food products including herbs and spices bought from South Asian grocers. Backward tracing did not identify a common source. WGS typing showed sub-clustering and considerable genetic variation across human samples. cgMLST allele-based analysis was comparable to SNP-derived phylogenetic analysis and clusters were defined using each method. Imported herbs or spices were suspected vehicles. The cases were linked in time and place but WGS showed marked heterogeneity, atypical of a point source Salmonella outbreak. The application of incorporating SNP or allelic differences into the case definition may not always be appropriate. With further validation, cgMLST could be used for international outbreak alerts when WGS analysis is being undertaken to facilitate comparison.
- Interventions for Prevention and Control of Epidemic of Vitamin D Deficiency. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Pediatr 2019 Jan 16
- Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) remains a significant health challenge globally with its overwhelming effects on skeletal growth and varied associations with extra-skeletal diseases. The last decade has r...
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) remains a significant health challenge globally with its overwhelming effects on skeletal growth and varied associations with extra-skeletal diseases. The last decade has reported a high prevalence of VDD in all age-groups across all zones of India. Children and adolescents are most vulnerable to ill-effects of VDD as peak linear growth and bone mass accrual occurs during these years. Vitamin D deficiency in mothers predisposes their infants to have low serum vitamin D levels. Indians have increased susceptibility to develop VDD due to predominant vegetarian dietary habits, high melanin skin content, atmospheric pollution, modest tradition of clothing and limited availability of fortified foods. Vitamin D supplementation during infancy and childhood has emerged as an effective strategy to combat VDD. However, effects of vitamin D supplementation are transient and are not cost-effective as a maintenance strategy. Fortification of foodstuffs has been adopted by many developed countries globally which has emerged as a safe, efficacious and cost-effective strategy to control VDD. A strong political will and support is required to sustain food fortification in India. The current review focuses on strategies to prevent and control the epidemic of VDD in children.
- Plant-based (vegan) diets for pets: A survey of pet owner attitudes and feeding practices. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(1):e0210806
- People who avoid eating animals tend to share their homes with animal companions, and moral dilemma may arise when they are faced with feeding animal products to their omnivorous dogs and carnivorous...
People who avoid eating animals tend to share their homes with animal companions, and moral dilemma may arise when they are faced with feeding animal products to their omnivorous dogs and carnivorous cats. One option to alleviate this conflict is to feed pets a diet devoid of animal ingredients-a 'plant-based' or 'vegan' diet. The number of pet owners who avoid animal products, either in their own or in their pets' diet, is not currently known. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of meat-avoiding pet owners, identify concerns regarding conventional animal- and plant-based pet food, and estimate the number of pets fed a plant-based diet. A questionnaire was disseminated online to English-speaking pet owners (n = 3,673) to collect data regarding pet owner demographics, diet, pet type, pet diet, and concerns regarding pet foods. Results found that pet owners were more likely to be vegetarian (6.2%; 229/3,673) or vegan (5.8%; 212/3,673) than previously reported for members of the general population. With the exception of one dog owned by a vegetarian, vegans were the only pet owners who fed plant-based diets to their pets (1.6%; 59/3,673). Of the pet owners who did not currently feed plant-based diets but expressed interest in doing so, a large proportion (45%; 269/599) desired more information demonstrating the nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets. Amongst all pet owners, the concern most commonly reported regarding meat-based pet foods was for the welfare of farm animals (39%; 1,275/3,231). The most common concern regarding strictly plant-based pet foods was regarding the nutritional completeness of the diet (74%; 2,439/3,318). Amongst vegans, factors which predicted the feeding of plant-based diets to their pets were concern regarding the cost of plant-based diets, a lack of concern regarding plant-based diets being unnatural, and reporting no concern at all regarding plant-based diets for pets. Given these findings, further research is warranted to investigate plant-based nutrition for domestic dogs and cats.
- Healthy Vegan Lifestyle Habits among Argentinian Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2019 Jan 12; 11(1)
- Although current research has contributed to the promotion of whole-food plant-based diets, few studies have examined healthy vegan dietary and lifestyle factors, especially in South America. Therefo...
Although current research has contributed to the promotion of whole-food plant-based diets, few studies have examined healthy vegan dietary and lifestyle factors, especially in South America. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the adherence to healthy vegan lifestyle habits among Argentinian vegetarians and omnivorous, using a recently developed vegetarian lifestyle index adapted to the vegan dietary pattern. Also, accessibility of vegetarian foods, and the proportion of household income spent on food were assessed in a cross-sectional approach with 1454 participants. The population was comprised of females (84.9%), singles (55.0%), young-adults (mean age 32.1, standard deviation (SD) = 13.6), employed (50.8%), with high educational levels (50.4%), and low prevalence of both tobacco smoking (7.0%) and frequent alcohol consumption (7.6%). The mean score of adherence to healthy vegan lifestyle habits was 6.64 (SD = 1.72), with higher scores indicating better adherence. Non-vegetarians (5.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.61⁻5.89) had a significantly lower adjusted mean score compared to semi-(6.32; 95% CI, 6.17⁻6.47), pesco-(6.99; 95% CI, 6.59⁻7.39), lacto-ovo-vegetarians (7.10; 95% CI, 6.96⁻7.24), as well as vegans (8.59; 95% CI, 8.35⁻8.83). The mean proportion of household income spent on food was significantly lower among vegans compared with other dietary patterns. The whole studied population showed a low consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Although vegans showed a better diet and lifestyle pattern there is a need to improve eating and lifestyle habits to address risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Argentina.
- Contribution of different life cycle stages to the greenhouse gas emissions associated with three balanced dietary patterns. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jan 08; 660:622-630
- In light of the considerable pressure exerted by food production on the environment, the assessment of the environmental burdens of dietary choices has recently gained interest among the scientific c...
In light of the considerable pressure exerted by food production on the environment, the assessment of the environmental burdens of dietary choices has recently gained interest among the scientific community. Several studies based on life cycle thinking approach agreed that a transition from an omnivorous to either a vegan or vegetarian diets would reduce the environmental impact associated with food consumption. The majority of the studies set the system boundaries up to the retail, excluding the consumption phase and generally do not account for uncertainties. The aim of the present study was to assess how personal consumption choices and behaviour can affect the greenhouse gas emissions generated by three balanced dietary patterns (omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan), defined on the basis of nutritional recommendations for an average Italian man. It took into consideration the uncertainties associated with three elements, namely the greenhouse gas emissions due to the production of the food items, the emissions associated with cooking and the food wasted by consumers. The results of the study highlighted that, despite the higher share of greenhouse gas emissions of the supply chain stages prior to consumption (66%-74% of the total emissions), domestic behaviours have an important influence of the total greenhouse gas emissions of the diet, which can offset the lower GHG emissions due to the choice of vegetable-origin foods. In fact, 15%-21% of the total emissions are associated to the cooking phase and 11%-13% to the food waste generation. Therefore, this study remarks the importance of adopting a cradle to grave perspective when assessing the environmental burden of dietary patterns and emphasises the central role of consumers in the definition of low GHG-emitting dietary patterns.
- Plant-Based Diets for Cardiovascular Safety and Performance in Endurance Sports. [Review]
- NNutrients 2019 Jan 10; 11(1)
- Studies suggest that endurance athletes are at higher-than-average risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial damage. The ability of plant-based regimens to reduce risk and affect performance was review...
Studies suggest that endurance athletes are at higher-than-average risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial damage. The ability of plant-based regimens to reduce risk and affect performance was reviewed. The effect of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors, particularly plasma lipid concentrations, body weight, and blood pressure, and, as part of a healthful lifestyle, reversing existing atherosclerotic lesions, may provide a substantial measure of cardiovascular protection. In addition, plant-based diets may offer performance advantages. They have consistently been shown to reduce body fat, leading to a leaner body composition. Because plants are typically high in carbohydrate, they foster effective glycogen storage. By reducing blood viscosity and improving arterial flexibility and endothelial function, they may be expected to improve vascular flow and tissue oxygenation. Because many vegetables, fruits, and other plant-based foods are rich in antioxidants, they help reduce oxidative stress. Diets emphasizing plant foods have also been shown to reduce indicators of inflammation. These features of plant-based diets may present safety and performance advantages for endurance athletes. The purpose of this review was to explore the role of nutrition in providing cardioprotection, with a focus on plant-based diets previously shown to provide cardiac benefits.
- Dietary Practices Adopted by Track and Field Athletes: Gluten-Free, Low FODMAP, Vegetarian and Fasting. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2019 Jan 11; :1-33
- Some track and field athletes implement special diets aiming to improve health and/or performance. An evidence-based approach to any diet is recommended to minimize the risks associated with unnecess...
Some track and field athletes implement special diets aiming to improve health and/or performance. An evidence-based approach to any diet is recommended to minimize the risks associated with unnecessary dietary restriction, which may potentially do more harm than good. Four prevalent diets are reviewed in the following manuscript: (1) gluten-free (GFD) and (2) low FODMAP (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) (3) vegetarian, and; (4) fasting diets. Recently, GFDs and low FODMAP diets have emerged as novel regimes thought to improve gastrointestinal health and reduce the risk of exercise associated gastrointestinal symptoms. No direct beneficial outcomes have been associated with avoiding gluten for clinically healthy athletes. Indirectly, a GFD is associated with other dietary changes, particularly FODMAP reduction, which may improve adverse gastrointestinal symptoms. Vegetarian diets can optimally support athletic demands. However, attention is required to ensure adequate energy and intake of specific nutrients that are less abundant or less well absorbed from plant sources. Lastly, fasting is a longstanding concept that is undertaken on a voluntary and obligatory basis. Despite limited supporting research voluntary fasting is a popular alternative to conventional diets perceptually offering health and body composition benefits. Strict obligatory fasting guidelines likely require the implementation of tailored nutrition strategies to help athletes cope with athletic demands. Overall, a multitude of factors influence adherence to special diets. Even when adherence to a special diet is a necessity, education and advice from an accredited dietitian/nutritionist is recommended for track and field athletes to optimize nutrition for health and performance.
- Diet and Multiple Sclerosis: Scoping Review of Web-Based Recommendations. [Review]
- IJInteract J Med Res 2019 Jan 09; 8(1):e10050
- CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variety of Web-based dietary advice, which in some cases is contradictory. In most cases, this advice is the result of peoples' individual experiences and has not been scientifically tested. How people living with MS use this information is not known. These findings highlight the important role health professionals can play in assisting people living with MS in their health information-seeking behaviors.
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- Diet quality of vegetarian diets compared with nonvegetarian diets: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- NRNutr Rev 2019 Jan 08
- CONCLUSIONS: Lacto-ovo vegetarians or vegans had higher overall diet quality (4.5-16.4 points higher on the Healthy Eating Index 2010 [HEI-2010]) compared with nonvegetarians in 9 of 12 studies. Higher HEI-2010 scores for vegetarians were driven by closer adherence to recommendations for total fruit, whole grains, seafood and plant protein, and sodium. However, nonvegetarians had closer adherence to recommendations for refined grains and total protein foods. Higher diet quality in vegetarian diets may partially explain improvements in health outcomes compared with nonvegetarians; however, more research controlling for known confounders like health consciousness is needed.