- History of dietary treatment: Guelpa & Marie first report of intermittent fasting for epilepsy in 1911. [Journal Article]
- EBEpilepsy Behav 2019 Apr 15; 94:277-280
- We analyzed the article of Guelpa & Marie, published in 1911 and often quoted in the history of dietary treatment, as the basis for the use of ketogenic diet to mimic fasting. In this paper, the auth…
We analyzed the article of Guelpa & Marie, published in 1911 and often quoted in the history of dietary treatment, as the basis for the use of ketogenic diet to mimic fasting. In this paper, the authors treated 21 patients with a diet consisting of daily administration of 30 g of sodium sulphate for 4 days, with unlimited aqueous beverage and no food, followed by a vegetarian diet restricted to half of the ordinary intake. This is the first report of intermittent fasting as treatment strategy for epilepsy. In this case series, 15 patients did not follow properly the diet while 2 improved temporary before they quitted the diet and 4 presented an improvement.
- Dietary Change Scenarios and Implications for Environmental, Nutrition, Human Health and Economic Dimensions of Food Sustainability. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2019 Apr 16; 11(4)
- Demand side interventions, such as dietary change, can significantly contribute towards the achievement of 2030 national sustainable development goals. However, most previous studies analysing the co…
Demand side interventions, such as dietary change, can significantly contribute towards the achievement of 2030 national sustainable development goals. However, most previous studies analysing the consequences of dietary change focus on a single dimension of sustainability (e.g., environment) using a limited number of indicators and dietary scenarios. A multi-dimension and multi-indicator analysis can identify the potential trade-offs. Here, starting from the current food consumption data (year 2011), we first designed nine alternative dietary scenarios (healthy Swiss diet, healthy global diet, vegetarian, vegan, pescatarian, flexitarian, protein-oriented and meat-oriented diets and a food greenhouse gas tax diet). Next we calculated three nutritional quality (nutrient balance score, disqualifying nutrient score, percent population with adequate nutrition), five environmental (greenhouse gas, water, land, nitrogen and phosphorus use), one economic (daily food expenditure) and one human health indicator (DALYs) for current and alternative diets. We found that transition towards a healthy diet following the guidelines of Swiss society of nutrition is the most sustainable option and is projected to result in 36% lesser environmental footprint, 33% lesser expenditure and 2.67% lower adverse health outcome (DALYs) compared with the current diet. On the other extreme, transition towards a meat or protein oriented diet can lead to large increases in diet related adverse health outcomes, environmental footprint, daily food expenditure and a reduction in intakes of essential nutrients (for Vitamin C, Fibre, Potassium and Calcium). We found that shifting to the vegetarian and vegan diet scenarios might lead to a reduction in intakes of certain micronutrients currently supplied primarily by animal-sourced foods (Vitamin B12, Choline and Calcium). Results show that achieving a sustainable diet would entail a high reduction in the intake of meat and vegetable oils and a moderate reduction in cereals, roots and fish products and at the same time increased intake of legumes, nuts, seeds, fruits and vegetables. We identify several current data and research gaps that need to be filled in order to get more accurate results. Overall, our analysis underscores the need to consider multiple indicators while assessing the dietary sustainability and provides a template to conduct such studies in other countries and settings. Future efforts should focus on assessing the potential of different interventions and policies that can help transition the population from current to sustainable dietary patterns.
- Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 in Human Breast Milk and Its Correlation with Infants' Parameters. [Journal Article]
- BMBreastfeed Med 2019 Apr 16
- CONCLUSIONS: TGF-β1 in human milk may play a role in infants' growth and development; mothers' diet is known to influence TGF-β1 level and its relation to infants' age and weight. Contraceptive method could have an influence on TGF-β1 levels during breastfeeding.
- Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for clinical assessment of vitamin D deficiency. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Drug Anal 2019; 27(2):494-501
- Vitamin D is responsible for multiple metabolic functions in humans. Rickets are the most common disease caused by vitamin D deficiency. It is caused by poor calcium intake resulting in poor serum-io…
Vitamin D is responsible for multiple metabolic functions in humans. Rickets are the most common disease caused by vitamin D deficiency. It is caused by poor calcium intake resulting in poor serum-ionized calcium. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid, sensitive, and feasible method to determine the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels in blood samples for clinical assessment. In this study, gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry with trimethylsilyl derivatization (TMS-GC-MS) is the most suitable protocol for quantitative analyses of 25(OH)D3. Performance of method was evaluated and compared with liquid chromatography and immunoassay. Method validation has been carried out with plasma specimens. The limit of quantitation of TMS-GC-MS method is 1.5 ppb with good linear correlation. Furthermore, the dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and non-vegetarians in Taiwan were assessed by our validated method. As a result, this vitamin D nutrition survey demonstrates that most Taiwanese people have insufficient vitamin D. Due to dietary habits; the male vegans may have the highest risk of vitamin D deficiency.
- Food-Cal: development of a controlled database of high and low calorie food matched with non-food pictures. [Journal Article]
- EWEat Weight Disord 2019 Apr 12
- CONCLUSIONS: The Food-Cal controlled set of picture database can be considered as a useful tool for experimental research.
- Comparison of Major Protein-Source Foods and Other Food Groups in Meat-Eaters and Non-Meat-Eaters in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2019 Apr 11; 11(4)
- Differences in health outcomes between meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters might relate to differences in dietary intakes between these diet groups. We assessed intakes of major protein-source foods and …
Differences in health outcomes between meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters might relate to differences in dietary intakes between these diet groups. We assessed intakes of major protein-source foods and other food groups in six groups of meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study. The data were from 30,239 participants who answered questions regarding their consumption of meat, fish, dairy or eggs and completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 2010. Participants were categorized as regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. FFQ foods were categorized into 45 food groups and analysis of variance was used to test for differences between age-adjusted mean intakes of each food group by diet group. Regular meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans, respectively, consumed about a third, quarter and a fifth of their total energy intake from high protein-source foods. Compared with regular meat-eaters, low and non-meat-eaters consumed higher amounts of high-protein meat alternatives (soy, legumes, pulses, nuts, seeds) and other plant-based foods (whole grains, vegetables, fruits) and lower amounts of refined grains, fried foods, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages. These findings provide insight into potential nutritional explanations for differences in health outcomes between diet groups.
- Development and validation of an individual sustainable diet index in the NutriNet-Santé study cohort. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Nutr 2019 Apr 11; :1-12
- In the current context of unsustainable food systems, we aimed to develop and validate an index, the sustainable diet index (SDI), assessing the sustainability of dietary patterns, including multidim…
In the current context of unsustainable food systems, we aimed to develop and validate an index, the sustainable diet index (SDI), assessing the sustainability of dietary patterns, including multidimensional individual indicators of sustainability. Based on the FAO's definition of sustainable diets, the SDI includes seven indicators categorised into four standardised sub-indexes, respectively, environmental, nutritional, economic and sociocultural. The index (range: 4-20) was obtained by summing the sub-indexes. We computed the SDI for 29 388 participants in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, estimated its validity and identified potential socio-demographic or lifestyle differences across the SDI quintile. In our sample, the SDI (mean=12·10/20; 95 % CI 12·07, 12·13) was highly correlated to all the sub-indexes that exerted substantial influence on the participants' ranking. The environmental and economical sub-indexes were the most and less correlated with the SDI (Pearson R 2 0·66 and 0·52, respectively). Dietary patterns of participants with a high SDI (considered as more sustainable) were concordant with the already published sustainable diets. Participants with high SDI scores were more often women (24 %), post-secondary graduates (22 %) and vegetarians or vegans (7 %), without obesity (16 %). Finally, the SDI could be a useful tool to easily assess the sustainability-related changes in dietary patterns, estimate the association with long-term health outcomes and help guide future public health policies.
- How proximal are pescatarians to vegetarians? An investigation of dietary identity, motivation, and attitudes toward animals. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Health Psychol 2019 Apr 10; :1359105319842933
- Research on the psychology of eating behavior often treats vegetarians as a monolithic group. Yet, a considerable proportion of people (17% in Study 1) who self-identify as vegetarian are actually pe…
Research on the psychology of eating behavior often treats vegetarians as a monolithic group. Yet, a considerable proportion of people (17% in Study 1) who self-identify as vegetarian are actually pescatarians-those who forgo all meats except fish. Research on the psychology of pescatarianism is profoundly lacking, which may hinder future interventionists' efforts to improve diet. Through two preregistered studies of adults from the United States recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk (total N = 490), we investigated pescatarianism with respect to dietary identity, motivation, and attitudes toward animals. Results suggest that future research may benefit from studying pescatarians as a distinct dietary group and paying greater attention to whether or not pescatarians self-identify as vegetarian.
- Consumer Attitudes Towards Environmental Concerns of Meat Consumption: A Systematic Review. [Review]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 05; 16(7)
- Meat consumption is a major contributor to global warming. Given the worldwide growing demand of meat, and the severe impact of meat production on the planet, reducing animal protein consumption is a…
Meat consumption is a major contributor to global warming. Given the worldwide growing demand of meat, and the severe impact of meat production on the planet, reducing animal protein consumption is a matter of food security and public health. Changing consumer food behavior is a challenge. Taste preferences, culinary traditions and social norms factor into food choices. Since behavioral change cannot occur without the subject's positive attitude based on reasons and motivations, a total of 34 papers on consumer attitudes and behavior towards meat consumption in relation to environmental concerns were examined. The results show that consumers aware of the meat impact on the planet, willing to stop or significantly reduce meat consumption for environmental reasons, and who have already changed their meat intake for ecological concerns are a small minority. However, environmental motives are already appealing significant proportions of Westerners to adopt certain meat curtailment strategies. Those who limit meat intake for environmental reasons are typically female, young, simply meat-reducer (not vegan/vegetarian), ecology-oriented, and would more likely live in Europe and Asia than in the U.S.
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- Vegetarians have a lower fasting insulin level and higher insulin sensitivity than matched omnivores: A cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- NMNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2019 Feb 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Vegetarian diet, especially vegan diet, is negatively associated with FI and IR, independent of BMI.