- Anisakis is a major cause of anaphylaxis in seaside areas: an epidemiological study in Japan. [Letter]
- AAllergy 2019 Jul 17
- Data for isolation and properties analysis of diastereomers of a mono-substituted phosphoryl guanidine trideoxyribonucleotide. [Journal Article]
- DBData Brief 2019; 25:104148
- This article presents new data on the properties of the diastereomers of a mono-substituted phosphoryl guanidine trideoxyribonucleotides d(TpCp*A) [1,2]. The data include information on isolation, id…
This article presents new data on the properties of the diastereomers of a mono-substituted phosphoryl guanidine trideoxyribonucleotides d(TpCp*A) [1,2]. The data include information on isolation, identification, treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase and structural analysis by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and restrained molecular dynamics analysis. The data can be used for preparation, analysis, application of phosphoryl guanidine oligonucleotide and for development of new nucleic acids derivatives. This data article is associated with the manuscript titled "Diastereomers of a mono-substituted phosphoryl guanidine trideoxyribonucleotide: isolation and properties" .
- Allergy and sensitization to Hymenoptera venoms in unreferred adults with a high risk of sting exposure. [Journal Article]
- WAWorld Allergy Organ J 2019; 12(7):100039
- CONCLUSIONS: Sensitization to Hymenoptera venom and their recombinant allergens are present in the majority of individuals who hunt and fish. Sensitization to distinct recombinant allergens does not necessarily affect the severity of sting reactions including anaphylaxis. A meticulous medical history of the number of previous stings as well as systemic reactions remains essential.
- Application of the Scorpion Neurotoxin AaIT against Insect Pests. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 Jul 15; 20(14)
- Androctonus australis Hector insect toxin (AaIT), an insect-selective toxin, was identified in the venom of the scorpion Androctonus australis. The exclusive and specific target of the toxin is the v…
Androctonus australis Hector insect toxin (AaIT), an insect-selective toxin, was identified in the venom of the scorpion Androctonus australis. The exclusive and specific target of the toxin is the voltage-gated sodium channels of the insect, resulting in fast excitatory paralysis and even death. Because of its strict toxic selectivity and high bioactivity, AaIT has been widely used in experiments exploring pest bio-control. Recombinant expression of AaIT in a baculovirus or a fungus can increase their virulence to insect pests and diseases vectors. Likewise, transgenic plants expressing AaIT have notable anti-insect activity. AaIT is an efficient toxin and has great potential to be used in the development of commercial insecticides.
- Conomarphins cause paralysis in mollusk: Critical and tunable structural elements for bioactivity. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pept Sci 2019; 25(7):e3179
- Two conomarphins were purified as the major component of the venom of Conus eburneus. Conomarphins Eb1 and Eb2 showed biological activity in the mollusk Pomacea padulosa, causing sluggishness and ret…
Two conomarphins were purified as the major component of the venom of Conus eburneus. Conomarphins Eb1 and Eb2 showed biological activity in the mollusk Pomacea padulosa, causing sluggishness and retraction of siphon, foot, and cephalic tentacles. To further probe the effects of conserved amino acids and posttranslational modifications in conomarphins, we prepared four synthetic analogues: conomarphin Eb1 Hyp10Pro, Hyp10Ala, d-Phe13Ala, and l-Phe13 variants. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that d-Phe13 is critical to the biological activity of conomarphins. In contrast, amino acid changes at position 10 and removal of posttranslational modification in Hyp10Pro can be tolerated. The high expression level and observed mollusk activity of conomarphins may suggest their potential role as defensive arsenal of Conoidean snails against other predatory gastropods.
- Pharmacological Characterization of Mouse Hind Paw Edema Induced by Parachartergus fraternus Venom. [Journal Article]
- IInflammation 2019 Jul 15
- Stings from the wasp Parachartergus fraternus occur throughout Latin America, and edema followed by pain is the main symptom presented by victims. This often limited inflammatory event has not been c…
Stings from the wasp Parachartergus fraternus occur throughout Latin America, and edema followed by pain is the main symptom presented by victims. This often limited inflammatory event has not been characterized for this species. In this work, we identified the mechanisms and possible mediators involved in this response. P. fraternus venom (100, 200, and 400 μg/kg) was injected into the hind paws of mice, and edema was evaluated at intervals of 10 min for up to 60 min and at 120, 240, and 1440 min using a digital plethysmometer. The peak of edema was observed at 10 min with a dose of 200 μg/kg. A reduction in edema was observed with indomethacin (58.1%), celecoxib (44.5%), MK886 (30.8%), and dexamethasone (53.2%). Loratadine, cimetidine, and cyproheptadine treatment reduced the edema by 54.2%, 63.9%, and 84.4%, respectively, compared with the control. Captopril and L-NAME inhibited 42.5% and 69.8%, respectively, of the edema. These results showed that the edema induced in mice by P. fraternus venom occurs early and is mediated by arachidonic acid derivatives, vasoactive amines, and nitric oxide. Together, these mediators amplify the inflammatory process, with emphasis on histamine and serotonin in triggering the edematogenic response, being more effective the use of cyproheptadine in the therapeutic approach.
- Uncapping the N-terminus of a ubiquitous His-tag peptide enhances its Cu2+ binding affinity. [Journal Article]
- DTDalton Trans 2019 Jul 16
- Metal complexes with an N-terminally free and N-terminally acetylated polyhistidine region of Echis ocellatus venom, with an interesting His-rich motif present in numerous metal binding proteins from…
Metal complexes with an N-terminally free and N-terminally acetylated polyhistidine region of Echis ocellatus venom, with an interesting His-rich motif present in numerous metal binding proteins from all kingdoms of life (DHDHDHHHHHHPGSSV-NH2 and Ac-DHDHDHHHHHHPGSSV-NH2) show the role of the free amino group in the thermodynamic enhancement of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ binding. In the studied sequences, Cu2+ can be coordinated by different sets of imidazole rings, and a 3-10 helix is detected in close proximity of Cu2+ binding sites. The complexes are more stable than those with a typical His6-tag, despite a similar copper(ii) coordination mode in both cases.
- Clinical implications of coagulotoxic variations in Mamushi (Viperidae: Gloydius) snake venoms. [Journal Article]
- CBComp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Jul 12; :108567
- Snake bite is currently one of the most neglected tropical diseases affecting much of the developing world. Asian pit vipers are responsible for a considerable amount of envenomations annually and bi…
Snake bite is currently one of the most neglected tropical diseases affecting much of the developing world. Asian pit vipers are responsible for a considerable amount of envenomations annually and bites can cause a multitude of clinical complications resulting from coagulopathic and neuropathic effects. While intense research has been undertaken for some species of Asian pit viper, functional coagulopathic effects have been neglected for others. We investigated their effects upon the human clotting cascade using venoms of four species of Gloydius and Ovophis okinavensis, a species closely to Gloydius. All species of included within this investigation displayed varying fibrinogenolytic effects, resulting in a net anticoagulant outcome. Gloydius saxatilis and Gloydius ussuriensis displayed the most variable effects from differing localities, sampled from Russia and Korea. As this Gloydius investigation includes some geographical variation, notable results indicate key variations of these species that point to possible limitations in antivenom cross-reactivities, which may have implications for the clinical care of victims envenomed by these snakes.
- Preferential infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes in an envenomed host. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Parasitol 2019 Jul 12
- Entomopathogenic nematodes and parasitoid wasps are used as biological control agents for management of insect pests such as the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. The parasitoid wasp Habrobrac…
Entomopathogenic nematodes and parasitoid wasps are used as biological control agents for management of insect pests such as the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. The parasitoid wasp Habrobracon hebetor injects a paralytic venom into P. interpunctella larvae before laying eggs. A previous study reported that the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica preferentially infects P. interpunctella that have been envenomed by H. hebetor while results in this study showed a similar preference by the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema glaseri. We therefore tested four hypotheses for why nematode infection rates are higher in envenomed hosts: 1) elevated CO2 emission from envenomed hosts attracts nematodes, 2) paralysis prevents hosts from escaping nematodes, 3) volatile chemicals emitted from envenomed hosts attract nematodes and increase infection, and 4) reduced immune defenses in envenomed hosts increase nematode survival. Results showed that envenomed P. interpunctella larvae emitted lower amounts of CO2 than non-envenomed larvae. Physical immobilization of P. interpunctella larvae did not increase infection rates by S. glaseri but did increase infection rates by H. indica. Emissions from envenomed hosts were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most abundant compound, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, was found to be an effective cue for S. glaseri attraction and infection but was not an effective stimulus for H. indica. Envenomed P. interpunctella exhibited a stronger immune response toward nematodes than non-envenomed hosts. Altogether, we conclude that different mechanisms underlie preferential infection in the two nematode species: host immobilization for H. indica and chemical cues for S. glaseri.
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- Venom-immunotherapy in patients with clonal mast cell disorders: IgG4 correlates with protection. [Journal Article]
- AAllergy 2019 Jul 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Both safety and efficacy of VIT in cMCD patients was slightly reduced than controls. Severe ARs were rare. The elevated IgG4 levels may be a biomarker for efficacy of VIT in cMCD patients, as it correlates with protection from re-stings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.