- Safety and immunogenicity of a killed bivalent (O1 and O139) whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in adults and children in Vellore, South India. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0218033
- This open-label study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of two doses (14 days apart) of an indigenously manufactured, killed, bivalent (Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139), whole-cell oral cholera vacc…
This open-label study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of two doses (14 days apart) of an indigenously manufactured, killed, bivalent (Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139), whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (SHANCHOL; Shantha Biotechnics) in healthy adults (n = 100) and children (n = 100) in a cholera endemic area (Vellore, South India) to fulfill post-licensure regulatory requirements and post-World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification commitments. Safety and reactogenicity were assessed, and seroconversion rates (i.e. proportion of participants with a ≥ 4-fold rise from baseline in serum vibriocidal antibody titers against V. cholerae O1 Inaba, O1 Ogawa and O139, respectively) were determined 14 days after each vaccine dose. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. Commonly reported solicited adverse events were headache and general ill feeling. Seroconversion rates after the first and second dose in adults were 67.7% and 55.2%, respectively, against O1 Inaba; 47.9% and 45.8% against O1 Ogawa; and 19.8% and 20.8% against O139. In children, seroconversion rates after the first and second dose were 80.2% and 68.8%, respectively, against O1 Inaba; 72.9% and 67.7% against O1 Ogawa; and 26.0% and 18.8% against O139. The geometric mean titers against O1 Inaba, O1 Ogawa, and O139 in both adults and children were significantly higher after each vaccine dose compared to baseline titers (P < 0.001; for both age groups after each dose versus baseline). The seroconversion rates for O1 Inaba, O1 Ogawa, and O139 in both age groups were similar to those in previous studies with the vaccine. In conclusion, the killed, bivalent, whole-cell oral cholera vaccine has a good safety and reactogenicity profile, and is immunogenic in healthy adults and children. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00760825; CTRI/2012/01/002354.
- Targeted killing of virulent Vibrio cholerae. [Journal Article]
- NBNat Biomed Eng 2019 Jun 17
- Vibrio vulnificus Infections From a Previously Nonendemic Area. [Journal Article]
- AIMAnn Intern Med 2019 Jun 18
- Pyrimidine biosynthesis in pathogens - Structures and analysis of dihydroorotases from Yersinia pestis and Vibrio cholerae. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2019 Jun 14
- The de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is essential for the proliferation of many pathogens. One of the pathway enzymes, dihydroorotase (DHO), catalyzes the reversible interconversion of N-carba…
The de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is essential for the proliferation of many pathogens. One of the pathway enzymes, dihydroorotase (DHO), catalyzes the reversible interconversion of N-carbamoyl-l-aspartate to 4,5-dihydroorotate. The substantial difference between bacterial and mammalian DHOs makes it a promising drug target for disrupting bacterial growth and thus an important candidate to evaluate as a response to antimicrobial resistance on a molecular level. Here, we present two novel three-dimensional structures of DHOs from Yersinia pestis (YpDHO), the plague-causing pathogen, and Vibrio cholerae (VcDHO), the causative agent of cholera. The evaluations of these two structures led to an analysis of all available DHO structures and their classification into known DHO types. Comparison of all the DHO active sites containing ligands that are listed in DrugBank was facilitated by a new interactive, structure-comparison and presentation platform. In addition, we examined the genetic context of characterized DHOs, which revealed characteristic patterns for different types of DHOs. We also generated a homology model for DHO from Plasmodium falciparum.
- Functional differentiation of three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) in response to Vibrio anguillarum infection in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 14
- PIK3CA has been extensively investigated from its molecular mechanism perspective and association with its mutations in different types of cancers. However, little has been reported regarding the pat…
PIK3CA has been extensively investigated from its molecular mechanism perspective and association with its mutations in different types of cancers. However, little has been reported regarding the pathological significance of PIK3CA expression in teleost. Here, in our present study, three PIK3CA genes termed SmPIK3CAa, SmPIK3CAb and SmPIK3CA-like were firstly identified in the genome of turbot S. maximus. Although these three genes located in different chromosomes, all of them share the same five domains. Phylogenetic and synteny analysis indicated that SmPIK3CAa, SmPIK3CAb and SmPIK3CA-like were three paralogs that may originate from duplication of the same ancestral PIK3CA gene. Subcellular localization analysis confirmed the cytoplasm distribution of these three paralogs. All three SmPIK3CA were ubiquitously expressed in examined tissues in turbot, with the higher expression levels in immune-related tissues such as blood, spleen, kidney, gills and intestines. Upon Vibrio anguillarum challenge, SmPIK3CAa and SmPIK3CA-like transcripts were significantly induced in spleen, intestine and blood despite of differential expression levels and responsive time points. Additionally, individuals in resistant group showed significantly higher expression level of both two genes than in the susceptible group. Moreover, four SNPs (102, 2530, 3027 and 3060) and one haplotype (Hap2) located in exon region of SmPIK3CA-like were identified and confirmed to be associated with V. anguillarum resistance in turbot by association analysis in different populations. Taken together, these results suggested that functional differentiation occurred in three SmPIK3CA paralogs with Vibrio anguillarum resistance and SmPIK3CAa and SmPIK3CA-like probable play potential roles in innate immune response to pathogenic invasions in turbot.
- Dietary supplementation with polypeptides improved growth performance, antibacterial immune and intestinal microbiota structure of Litopenaeus vannamei. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 14
- Antibacterial peptides (AMPs) are expected to replace some or all of the antibiotics and become a new feed additive. However, the high production cost and unclear mechanism limited the application of…
Antibacterial peptides (AMPs) are expected to replace some or all of the antibiotics and become a new feed additive. However, the high production cost and unclear mechanism limited the application of AMPs. In this research, the effects of a commercial polypeptide (Polypeptide S100) whose main components are AMPs on the growth, antibacterial immune and intestinal microbial of Litopenaeus vannamei were study. L. vannamei (initial weight of 0.16 ± 0.03 g) were fed for 123 days with basal diet added Polypeptide S100 at two levels each (0.5% and 1%) as experimental groups, and a basal diet as control. Dietary inclusion of Polypeptide S100 at 1% level significantly increased the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of L. vannamei. The survival rates of L. vannamei in 0.5% and 1% Polypeptide S100 groups were significantly higher than the control when infected by Vibrio harveyi but not Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and lysozyme (LZM) in the two experimental groups were all significantly higher than the control. Differently, the activities of amylase (AMS) and lipase (LPS) were significantly higher in 0.5% Polypeptide S100 group but lower in 1.0% Polypeptide S100 group. Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing showed that the dominant phyla in the intestine of L. vannamei were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Fusobacteria and Tenericutes, and the abundance of predominant phyla Cyanobacteria were upregulated significantly in the experimental groups. At the family level, significant increase was observed in Pseudomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae but decrease in Vibrionaceae in the 1.0% Polypeptide S100 group. The abundance of predominant genus Photobacterium were obviously downregulated in the two experimental groups. Unlikely, the abundance of Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas were distinctly increased in the 1.0% Polypeptide S100 group but not significantly different from the control in 0.5% Polypeptide S100 group. All these results suggested that Polypeptide S100 could improve the growth performance, antibacterial immune and intestinal microbiota structure of L. vannamei.
- Adaptation to host in Vibrio vulnificus, a zoonotic pathogen that causes septicemia in fish and humans. [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Microbiol 2019 Jun 17
- Vibrio vulnificus is a siderophilic pathogen spreading due to global warming. The zoonotic strains constitute a clonal-complex related to fish farms that are distributed worldwide. In this study, we …
Vibrio vulnificus is a siderophilic pathogen spreading due to global warming. The zoonotic strains constitute a clonal-complex related to fish farms that are distributed worldwide. In this study, we applied a transcriptomic and single gene approach and discover that the zoonotic strains bypassed the iron requirement of the species thanks to the acquisition of two iron-regulated outer membrane proteins (IROMPs) involved in resistance to innate immunity. Both proteins have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer, and are contributing to the successful spreading of this clonal-complex. We have also discovered that the zoonotic strains express a virulent phenotype in the blood of its main susceptible hosts (iron-overloaded humans and healthy eels) by combining a host-specific protective envelope with the common expression of two toxins (VvhA and RtxA1), one of which (RtxA1) is directly involved in sepsis. Finally, we found that both IROMPs are also present in other fish pathogenic species, and have recently been transmitted to the phylogenetic lineage involved in human primary sepsis after raw seafood ingestion. Together our results highlight the potential hazard that the aquaculture industry poses to public health, which is of particular relevance in the context of a warming world. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Bent Bacteria: A Comparison of Cell Shape Mechanisms in Proteobacteria. [Journal Article]
- ARAnnu Rev Microbiol 2019 Jun 14
- Helical cell shape appears throughout the bacterial phylogenetic tree. Recent exciting work characterizing cell shape mutants in a number of curved and helical Proteobacteria is beginning to suggest …
Helical cell shape appears throughout the bacterial phylogenetic tree. Recent exciting work characterizing cell shape mutants in a number of curved and helical Proteobacteria is beginning to suggest possible mechanisms and provide tools to assess functional significance. We focus here on Caulobacter crescentus, Vibrio cholerae, Helicobacter pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni, organisms from three classes of Proteobacteria that live in diverse environments, from freshwater and saltwater to distinct compartments within the gastrointestinal tract of humans and birds. Comparisons among these bacteria reveal common themes as well as unique solutions to the task of maintaining cell curvature. While motility appears to be influenced in all these bacteria when cell shape is perturbed, consequences on niche colonization are diverse, suggesting the need to consider additional selective pressures.
- Review of molecular subtyping methodologies used to investigate outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant enteric bacterial pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa. [Review]
- AJAfr J Lab Med 2019; 8(1):760
- CONCLUSIONS: Traditional molecular subtyping methodologies are still commonly used and still have their place in investigations; however, WGS approaches have increasingly been used and are slowly gaining a stronghold. African laboratories need to start adapting their molecular surveillance methodologies to include WGS, as it is foreseen that WGS analysis will eventually replace all traditional methodologies.
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- Structural and functional characterization of CMP-N-acetylneuraminate synthetase from Vibrio cholerae. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2019 Jun 01; 75(Pt 6):564-577
- Several pathogenic bacteria utilize sialic acid, including host-derived N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), in at least two ways: they use it as a nutrient source and as a host-evasion strategy by coat…
Several pathogenic bacteria utilize sialic acid, including host-derived N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), in at least two ways: they use it as a nutrient source and as a host-evasion strategy by coating themselves with Neu5Ac. Given the significant role of sialic acid in pathogenesis and host-gut colonization by various pathogenic bacteria, including Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae, several enzymes of the sialic acid catabolic, biosynthetic and incorporation pathways are considered to be potential drug targets. In this work, findings on the structural and functional characterization of CMP-N-acetylneuraminate synthetase (CMAS), a key enzyme in the incorporation pathway, from Vibrio cholerae are reported. CMAS catalyzes the synthesis of CMP-sialic acid by utilizing CTP and sialic acid. Crystal structures of the apo and the CDP-bound forms of the enzyme were determined, which allowed the identification of the metal cofactor Mg2+ in the active site interacting with CDP and the invariant Asp215 residue. While open and closed structural forms of the enzyme from eukaryotic and other bacterial species have already been characterized, a partially closed structure of V. cholerae CMAS (VcCMAS) observed upon CDP binding, representing an intermediate state, is reported here. The kinetic data suggest that VcCMAS is capable of activating the two most common sialic acid derivatives, Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc. Amino-acid sequence and structural comparison of the active site of VcCMAS with those of eukaryotic and other bacterial counterparts reveal a diverse hydrophobic pocket that interacts with the C5 substituents of sialic acid. Analyses of the thermodynamic signatures obtained from the binding of the nucleotide (CTP) and the product (CMP-sialic acid) to VcCMAS provide fundamental information on the energetics of the binding process.