- Transcriptional regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis and signal transduction, and anthocyanin biosynthesis in 'Bluecrop' highbush blueberry fruit during ripening. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0220015
- Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruit accumulate high levels of anthocyanins during ripening, which might be controlled by abscisic acid (ABA), a signal molecule in non-climacteric fruits. …
Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruit accumulate high levels of anthocyanins during ripening, which might be controlled by abscisic acid (ABA), a signal molecule in non-climacteric fruits. For an integrated view of the ripening process from ABA to anthocyanin biosynthesis, we analyzed the transcriptomes of 'Bluecrop' highbush blueberry fruit using RNA-Seq at three ripening stages, categorized based on fruit skin coloration: pale green at ca. 30 days after full bloom (DAFB), reddish purple at ca. 40 DAFB, and dark purple at ca. 50 DAFB. Mapping the trimmed reads against the reference sequences yielded 25,766 transcripts. Of these, 143 transcripts were annotated to encode five ABA biosynthesis enzymes, four ABA signal transduction regulators, four ABA-responsive transcription factors, and 12 anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes. The analysis of differentially expressed genes between the ripening stages revealed that 11 transcripts, including those encoding nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, SQUAMOSA-class MADS box transcription factor, and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase, were significantly up-regulated throughout the entire ripening stages. In fruit treated with 1 g L-1 ABA, at least nine transcripts of these 11 transcripts as well as one transcript encoding flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase were up-regulated, presumably promoting anthocyanin accumulation and fruit skin coloration. These results will provide fundamental information demonstrating that ABA biosynthesis and signal transduction, and anthocyanin biosynthesis are closely associated with anthocyanin accumulation and skin coloration in highbush blueberry fruit during ripening.
- Do Communities Really "Direct" in Community-Directed Interventions? A Qualitative Assessment of Beneficiaries' Perceptions at 20 Years of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin in Cameroon. [Journal Article]
- TMTrop Med Infect Dis 2019 Jul 15; 4(3)
- Recent studies in Cameroon after 20 years of implementation of the Community Directed Treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) strategy, revealed mixed results as regards community ownership. This brings int…
Recent studies in Cameroon after 20 years of implementation of the Community Directed Treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) strategy, revealed mixed results as regards community ownership. This brings into question the feasibility of Community Directed Interventions (CDI) in the country. We carried out qualitative surveys in 3 health districts of Cameroon, consisting of 11 individual interviews and 10 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with specific community members. The main topic discussed during individual interviews and FGDs was about community participation in health. We found an implementation gap in CDTI between the process theory in the 3 health districts. Despite this gap, community eagerness for health information and massive personal and financial adhesion to interventions that were perceived important, were indicators of CDI feasibility. The concept of CDI is culturally feasible in rural and semi-urban settlements, but many challenges hinder its actual implementation. In the view of community participation as a process rather than an intervention, these challenges include real dialogue with communities as partners, dialogue and advocacy with operational level health staff, and macroeconomic and political reforms in health, finance and other associated sectors.
- Infants Attribute False Beliefs to a Toy Crane. [Journal Article]
- DSDev Sci 2019 Jul 15; :e12887
- The mentalistic view of early theory of mind posits that infants possess a robust and sophisticated understanding of false belief that is masked by the demands of traditional explicit tasks. Much of …
The mentalistic view of early theory of mind posits that infants possess a robust and sophisticated understanding of false belief that is masked by the demands of traditional explicit tasks. Much of the evidence supporting this mentalistic view comes from infants' looking time at events that violate their expectations about the beliefs of a human agent. We conducted a replication of the violation-of-expectation procedure, except that the human agent was replaced by an inanimate agent. Infants watched a toy crane repeatedly move toward a box containing an object. In the absence of the crane, the object changed location. When the crane returned, 16-month-old infants looked longer when it turned toward the object's new location, consistent with the attribution of a false belief to the crane. These results suggest that infants spontaneously attribute false beliefs to inanimate agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Survive or Thrive? Longitudinal Relation Between Chronic Pain and Well-Being. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Behav Med 2019 Jul 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a comprehensive picture of the way chronic pain is associated both with EWB and HWB, in addition to psychological distress. Further, chronic pain may have a lasting influence on EWB, while it may have little predictive value for future HWB and psychological distress. Our study supports well-being's relevance to chronic pain research and has the potential to guide prevention strategies and treatment for chronic pain using a positive psychological framework.
- Institutional barriers and enablers to implementing and complying with internationally accepted quality standards in the local pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan: a qualitative study. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Policy Plan 2019 Jul 13
- Complying with good manufacturing practices (GMP) and ensuring a quality system is integral to production and supply of quality medicines and achieving universal health coverage. This study focus on …
Complying with good manufacturing practices (GMP) and ensuring a quality system is integral to production and supply of quality medicines and achieving universal health coverage. This study focus on the local production of medicines in Pakistan, a lower middle-income country that has observed considerable growth in the number of pharmaceutical companies over the past two decades. Against this background, we investigated: (1) How is quality assurance (QA) and GMP compliance understood and acted upon by local pharmaceutical manufacturers?; (2) What are the institutional barriers and enablers for QA and GMP compliance in the local pharmaceutical sector from the perspective of key stakeholders?; and (3) What are the institutional barriers and enablers for strengthening local regulatory capacity to improve QA in the industry in the long term? We used a qualitative study design involving 22 interviews of the drug regulatory bodies (n = 9), academia (n = 3) and local manufacturers (n = 10), identifying key themes in data by thematic analysis. Document analysis was used to collect additional information and supplement the interview data. We identified that manufacturing facilities operated under different GMP standards and interpretations, pointing towards an absence of harmonization in quality standards across the industry. Views diverged about the status of GMP compliance, with interviewees from academia presenting a more critical view compared with regulators who promoted a more positive story. Among the barriers explaining why companies struggled with quality standards, the lack of a mindset promoting quality and safety among profit-oriented manufacturers was prominent. At the federal level, DRAP's establishment represented an institutional improvement aiming to promote QA through inspections and guidance. While some positive measures to promote quality have been observed, the need for DRAP to strengthen its technical and regulatory capacity, enhance its engagement in international collaboration and learning, and improve transparency and accountability were highlighted. Overall, since the challenges in Pakistan are shared with other low- and middle-income countries with local production, there is a need to commit to international collaborative mechanisms, such as those lead by WHO, on this issue.
- Physically aggressive behaviors in older people living with cognitive disorders: a systematic scoping review protocol. [Journal Article]
- SRSyst Rev 2019 Jul 11; 8(1):164
- CONCLUSIONS: No scoping review has been found on the physically aggressive behaviors of older people living with cognitive impairment in various settings. The results of this review will identify needs for further research and for clinical and training development on this problem from a humanist standpoint.
- The feasibility of cost-effective manufacturing activated carbon derived from walnut shells for large-scale CO2 capture. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jul 10
- The economic potential of activated carbon (AC) synthesis from walnut shell biomass for CO2 capture was evaluated in the present study. For this purpose, the chemical activation was employed to manuf…
The economic potential of activated carbon (AC) synthesis from walnut shell biomass for CO2 capture was evaluated in the present study. For this purpose, the chemical activation was employed to manufacture ACs and the effect of different impregnation ratios of activation agents, comprising KOH (KH) and H3PO4 (HP), onto the properties of fabricated ACs was examined. The obtained results demonstrated that the synthesized AC by HP activation with an impregnation ratio of 1:2.5, which was identified as HP2.5, possesses the highest surface area (1512.6 m2/g), micropore volume percentage (74.65%), and CO2 adsorption (3.55 mmol/g) at 1 bar and 30 °C. Moreover, the equilibrium CO2 adsorption data for HP2.5 were better fitted with the Freundlich model, indicating the multilayer CO2 adsorption onto the heterogeneous AC surface dominantly through a physisorption process. In addition, the economic estimations revealed a cost of about $1.83/kg for the ultimate production that was significantly lower than the most of available CACs in the market. Therefore, walnut shells can be considered as a cost-effective and promising biomass source from a scale-up point of view.
- The view and policy of management of occupational health services on the performance of workers' health surveillance: a qualitative exploration. [Journal Article]
- BHBMC Health Serv Res 2019 Jul 10; 19(1):473
- CONCLUSIONS: Although some of the mentioned views on workers' health surveillance are positive, the policy of occupational health services on workers' health surveillance does, so far, in general, not stimulate occupational physicians or employers to perform or organize workers' health surveillance.
- Pattern and scale: evaluating generalities in crab distributions and marsh dynamics from small plots to a national scale. [Journal Article]
- EEcology 2019 Jul 10
- The generality of ecological patterns depends inextricably on the scale at which they are examined. We investigated patterns of crab distribution and the relationship between crabs and vegetation in …
The generality of ecological patterns depends inextricably on the scale at which they are examined. We investigated patterns of crab distribution and the relationship between crabs and vegetation in salt marshes at multiple scales. By using consistent monitoring protocols across 15 US National Estuarine Research Reserves, we were able to synthesize patterns from the scale of quadrats to the entire marsh landscape to regional and national scales. Some generalities emerged across marshes from our overall models, and these are useful for informing broad coastal management policy. We found that crab burrow distribution within a marsh could be predicted by marsh elevation, distance to creek and soil compressibility. While these physical factors also affected marsh vegetation cover, we did not find a strong or consistent overall effect of crabs at a broad scale in our multivariate model, though regressions conducted separately for each site revealed that crab burrows were negatively correlated with vegetation cover at 4/15 sites. This contrasts with recent smaller-scale studies and meta-analyses synthesizing such studies that detected strong negative effects of crabs on marshes, likely because we sampled across the entire marsh landscape, while targeted studies are typically limited to low-lying areas near creeks, where crab burrow densities are highest. Our results suggest that sea-level rise generally poses a bigger threat to marshes than crabs, but there will likely be interactions between these physical and biological factors. Beyond these generalities across marshes, we detected some regional differences in crab community composition, richness and abundance. However, we found striking differences among sites within regions, and within sites, in terms of crab abundance and relationships to marsh integrity. Although generalities are broadly useful, our findings indicate that local managers cannot rely on data from other nearby systems, but rather need local information for developing salt marsh management strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- Vision: Magnified Foveal Representation in Monkey Midbrain. [Journal Article]
- CBCurr Biol 2019 Jul 08; 29(13):R625-R627
- The superior colliculus is canonically viewed as a controller of extra-foveal gaze. This traditional view of superior colliculus function is challenged by the discovery that it has an expanded foveal…
The superior colliculus is canonically viewed as a controller of extra-foveal gaze. This traditional view of superior colliculus function is challenged by the discovery that it has an expanded foveal magnification, comparable to that in primary visual cortex.