- Neoadjuvant or Adjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Concurrent CRT Versus Concurrent CRT Alone in the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Study Based on EBV DNA. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Natl Compr Canc Netw 2019 Jun 01; 17(6):703-710
- CONCLUSIONS: The addition of NACT to CCRT could reduce distant failure in patients with low risk of treatment failure.
- Burden of insulin injection-related needlestick injuries in mainland China-prevalence, incidence, and healthcare costs. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Nurs Stud 2019 May 28; 97:78-83
- CONCLUSIONS: Insulin injection-related needlestick injuries were common in nurses working in hospitals in China and imposed a significant economic burden. More resources should be allocated for preventive efforts for needlestick injuries, including adoption of injection devices with advanced safety features.
- Adaptive amino acid substitutions enhance the virulence of an avian-origin H6N1 influenza virus in mice. [Journal Article]
- IGInfect Genet Evol 2019 Jun 11; :103918
- The H6N1 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) is a zoonotic infectious disease pathogen, which poses a threat to human health. In order to study the possible substitution of H6N1 AIV for mammals, an a…
The H6N1 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) is a zoonotic infectious disease pathogen, which poses a threat to human health. In order to study the possible substitution of H6N1 AIV for mammals, an avian-origin H6N1 virus was successively passaged in mice. The results showed that PB2 (L193H and E627K), PA (S709F) and HA (V127I) proteins had multiple amino acid substitutions. The virulence of the mouse-adapted virus was stronger than that of the wild virus, and it was highly pathogenic to mice. Therefore, continued surveillance of these substitutions in poultry H6N1 viruses is required.
- Updated unified phylogenetic classification system and revised nomenclature for Newcastle disease virus. [Journal Article]
- IGInfect Genet Evol 2019 Jun 11; :103917
- Several Avian paramyxoviruses 1 (synonymous with Newcastle disease virus or NDV, used hereafter) classification systems have been proposed for strain identification and differentiation. These systems…
Several Avian paramyxoviruses 1 (synonymous with Newcastle disease virus or NDV, used hereafter) classification systems have been proposed for strain identification and differentiation. These systems pioneered classification efforts; however, they were based on different approaches and lacked objective criteria for the differentiation of isolates. These differences have created discrepancies among systems, rendering discussions and comparisons across studies difficult. Although a system that used objective classification criteria was proposed by Diel and co-workers in 2012, the ample worldwide circulation and constant evolution of NDV, and utilization of only some of the criteria led to identical naming and/or incorrect assigning of new sub/genotypes. To address these issues, an international consortium of experts was convened to undertake in-depth analyses of NDV genetic diversity. This consortium generated curated, up-to-date, complete fusion gene class I and class II datasets of all known NDV for public use, performed comprehensive phylogenetic Neighbor-Joining, maximum-likelihood, Bayesian and nucleotide distance analyses, and compared these inference methods. An updated NDV classification and nomenclature system that incorporates phylogenetic topology, genetic distances, branch support, and epidemiological independence was developed. This new consensus system maintains two NDV classes and existing genotypes, identifies three new genotypes, and reduces the number of sub-genotypes. In order to track the ancestry of viruses, a dichotomous naming system for designating sub-genotypes was introduced. In addition, a pilot dataset and sub-trees rooting guidelines for rapid preliminary genotype identification of new isolates are provided. Guidelines for sequence dataset curation and phylogenetic inference, and a detailed comparison between the updated and previous systems are included. To increase the speed of phylogenetic inference and ensure consistency between laboratories, detailed guidelines for the use of a supercomputer are also provided. The proposed unified classification system will facilitate future studies of NDV evolution and epidemiology, and comparison of results obtained across the world.
- The complete genome of Rachiplusia nu nucleopolyhedrovirus (RanuNPV) and the identification of a baculoviral CPD-photolyase homolog. [Journal Article]
- VVirology 2019 May 29; 534:64-71
- We described a novel baculovirus isolated from the polyphagous insect pest Rachiplusia nu. The virus presented pyramidal-shaped occlusion bodies (OBs) with singly-embed nucleocapsids and a dose morta…
We described a novel baculovirus isolated from the polyphagous insect pest Rachiplusia nu. The virus presented pyramidal-shaped occlusion bodies (OBs) with singly-embed nucleocapsids and a dose mortality response of 6.9 × 103 OBs/ml to third-instar larvae of R. nu. The virus genome is 128,587 bp long with a G + C content of 37.9% and 134 predicted ORFs. The virus is an alphabaculovirus closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus, Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus, and Chrysodeixis includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus and may constitute a new species. Surprisingly, we found co-evolution among the related viruses and their hosts at species level. Besides, auxiliary genes with homologs in other baculoviruses were found, e.g. a CPD-photolyase. The gene seemed to be result of a single event of horizontal transfer from lepidopterans to alphabaculovirus, followed by a transference from alpha to betabaculovirus. The predicted protein appears to be an active enzyme that ensures likely DNA protection from sunlight.
- Efficiency of different fragment lengths of the ubiquitous chromatin opening element HNRPA2B1-CBX3 in driving human CD18 gene expression within self-inactivating lentiviral vectors for gene therapy applications. [Journal Article]
- GENEGene 2019 Jun 11
- Patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1) suffer from life-threatening bacterial infections due to mutations in the common β2 integrin subunit (CD18/ITGB2 gene). We tested different f…
Patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1) suffer from life-threatening bacterial infections due to mutations in the common β2 integrin subunit (CD18/ITGB2 gene). We tested different fragments of the ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE) from the human HNRPA2B1-CBX3 locus for their efficiency in driving the human CD18 gene expression and compared it with that of an elongation factor 1 alpha promoter (EF1αL, 1169 bp; EF1αS 248 bp) and a murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter within the context of the same lentiviral vector backbone. These vectors were tested in vitro for the human CD18 gene expression on the surface of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) isolated from both moderate and severe LAD1 patients. Among the promoters tested in the patients' CD34+ HSCs, only U631 bp, U652 bp, U1262 bp, 5' 2.2 kb A2UCOE and EF1αS resulted in higher percentage of CD18+CD34+ cells comparable to that of the MSCV promoter. The U655 bp, U723 bp, U1296 bp, U2598 bp and EF1αL promoters resulted in comparatively lower numbers of CD18+CD34+ cells. This study would be useful in investigating the human CD18 gene expression in an ex vivo experiment to demonstrate the phenotypic correction of LAD1 in a pre-clinical model.
- Promiscuous T cell epitopes boosts specific IgM immune response against a P0 peptide antigen from sea lice in different teleost species. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 11
- The development of vaccines employing conserved protein antigens, for instance ribosomal protein P0, has as disadvantage the high degree of identity between pathogen and host proteins due to possible…
The development of vaccines employing conserved protein antigens, for instance ribosomal protein P0, has as disadvantage the high degree of identity between pathogen and host proteins due to possible induction of tolerance or auto antibodies in the host organism. To overcome this drawback, peptide-based vaccines have been designed with a proved high efficacy. The use of defined peptides as antigens has the problem that they are generally poor immunogenic unless coupled to a carrier protein. Several studies have established the potential for promiscuous T cell epitopes incorporated into chimeric peptides to enhance the immunogenicity in mammals. On the contrary, studies about the role of these epitopes on teleost immune system are scarce. Therefore, the main objective of our present study was to evaluate the potential of promiscuous T cell epitopes to boost specific IgM immune response in teleost fish against a peptide antigen. With this aim, we used a peptide of 35 amino acids from the ribosomal P0 protein of Lepeophtheirus salmonis, an important parasite in salmon aquaculture. We fused this peptide to the C-terminal of T cell epitopes from tetanus toxin and measles virus and produced the chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Following vaccination, IgM antibody production was monitored in different immunization schemes in Tilapia, African catfish and Atlantic salmon. The results demonstrated for first time that the addition of T cell epitopes at the N-terminal of a target peptide increased IgM specific response in different teleost species, revealing the potential of this approach to develop peptide-based vaccines for aquaculture. The results are also of great importance in the context of vaccine development against sea lice using ribosomal protein P0 as antigen taking into account the key role of P0 in protein synthesis and other essential physiological processes.
- Zebrafish FGFR3 is a negative regulator of RLR pathway to decrease IFN expression. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 11
- Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 3 is one of the four distinct membrane-spanning tyrosine kinases required for proper skeletal development. In fish, the role of FGFR3 is still unclear. In thi…
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 3 is one of the four distinct membrane-spanning tyrosine kinases required for proper skeletal development. In fish, the role of FGFR3 is still unclear. In this article, we reveal that zebrafish FGFR3 is a negative regulator of interferon (IFN) production in the innate immune response by suppressing the activity of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) in the process of virus infection. qPCR experiments demonstrate that the transcriptional level of cellular FGFR3 was upregulated by infection with spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), indicating that FGFR3 might be involved in the process of host cell response to viral infection. Then, overexpression of FGFR3 significantly impeded the IFN promoter activity induced by a stimulator. In addition, the capabilities of a retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) system to activate IFN promoter were decreased during the overexpression of FGFR3. Subsequently, FGFR3 decreased the phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA) by TBK1. These findings suggest that zebrafish FGFR3 is a negative regulator of IFN by attenuating the kinase activity of TBK1, leading to the suppression of IFN expression.
- Long non-coding RNA and MicroRNA profiling provides comprehensive insight into non-coding RNA involved host immune responses in ALV-J-infected chicken primary macrophage. [Journal Article]
- DCDev Comp Immunol 2019 Jun 11; :103414
- Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression in infected chickens. Macrophages play a crucial role in host defense against invading pathogens. In the prese…
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression in infected chickens. Macrophages play a crucial role in host defense against invading pathogens. In the present study, whole transcriptome analysis was performed to analyze the host factors including genes, microRNA (miRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and their regulatory network in chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). In total, 128 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and 15 DE miRNAs were identified in MDMs at 3 h post infection (hpi), and 30 DE lncRNAs and 8 DE miRNAs were identified in MDMs at 36 hpi during ALV-J infection. We further constructed the DE lncRNAs-mRNAs, miRNA-mRNAs and lncRNAs-miRNA-mRNAs interaction networks. The results suggested that DE lncRNAs and miRNAs are involved in the regulation of CCND3 and SOCS5 in Jak-STAT signaling pathway via ceRNA network in ALV-J-infected MDMs at 3 hpi. In addition, lncRNAs including XLOC_672329, ALDBGALG0000001429, XLOC_016500 and ALDBGALG0000000253 cis-regulating CH25H, CISH, IL-1β and CD80 respectively in MDMs at 3 hpi participated in host antiviral responses. Our findings give a comprehensive view of the connection between non-coding RNA and ALV-J in chicken primary macrophages, and provide an excellent resource for further studies of epigenetic effects on ALV-J disease resistance breeding as well as immune system and genomic researches.
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- Input of recombinant phenotyping for the characterization of a novel acyclovir-resistance mutation identified in a patient with recurrent herpetic keratitis. [Journal Article]
- ARAntiviral Res 2019 Jun 11
- We report here a case of an immunocompetent patient suffering from recurrent epithelial herpetic keratitis associated with the emergence of antiviral resistance. Indeed, the not previously described …
We report here a case of an immunocompetent patient suffering from recurrent epithelial herpetic keratitis associated with the emergence of antiviral resistance. Indeed, the not previously described amino acid change L340R within herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, was shown to confer acyclovir-resistance by recombinant phenotyping using bacmid technology.