- Functional involvement of human periaqueductal gray and other midbrain nuclei in cognitive control. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci 2019 Jun 03
- Recent theoretical advances have motivated the hypothesis that the periaqueductal gray (PAG) participates in behaviors that involve changes in the autonomic control of visceromotor activity, includin…
Recent theoretical advances have motivated the hypothesis that the periaqueductal gray (PAG) participates in behaviors that involve changes in the autonomic control of visceromotor activity, including during cognitively demanding tasks. We used ultra-high-field (7 Tesla) functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure human brain activity at 1.1 mm resolution while participants completed a working memory task. Consistent with prior work, participants were less accurate and responded more slowly with increasing memory load, signs of increasing task difficulty. Whole-brain fMRI analysis revealed increased activity in multiple cortical areas with increasing working memory load, including frontal and parietal cortex, dorsal cingulate, supplementary motor area, and anterior insula. Several dopamine rich midbrain nuclei, e.g., substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, also exhibited load-dependent increases in activation. To investigate PAG involvement during cognitive engagement, we developed an automated method for segmenting and spatially normalizing the PAG. Analyses using cross-validated linear support vector machines showed that the PAG discriminated high vs. low working memory load conditions with 95% accuracy in individual subjects based on activity increases in lateral and ventrolateral PAG. Effect sizes in the PAG were comparable in magnitude to those in many of the cortical areas. These findings suggest that cognitive control is not only associated with cortical activity in the frontal and parietal lobes, but also with increased activity in the subcortical PAG and other midbrain regions involved in the regulation of autonomic nervous system function.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTFunctional neuroimaging in humans has shown that cognitive control engages multiple cortico-striatal networks and brainstem nuclei, but theoretical advances suggest that the periaqueductal gray (PAG) should also be engaged during cognitively demanding tasks. Recent advances in ultra-high-field fMRI provided an opportunity to obtain the first evidence that increased activation of intermediate and rostral portions of lateral and ventrolateral PAG columns in humans is modulated by cognitive load. These findings suggest that cognitive control is not solely mediated by activity in the cortex, but that midbrain structures important for autonomic regulation also play a crucial role in higher-order cognition.
- Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor C11 (Mrgprc11) induces visceral hypersensitivity in the mouse colon: A novel target in gut nociception? [Journal Article]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2019; 31(8):1-12
- Visceral hypersensitivity, an important cause of abdominal pain in disorders such as IBD and IBS, presents with a poorly understood pathophysiology and limited treatment options. Several members of t…
Visceral hypersensitivity, an important cause of abdominal pain in disorders such as IBD and IBS, presents with a poorly understood pathophysiology and limited treatment options. Several members of the Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor family (Mrgprs) have become promising targets in pain research. The potential link between the murine Mrgpr C11 (Mrgprc11) and gut nociception is currently uninvestigated. Therefore, we explored the expression and functional role of Mrgprc11 in the gut nociceptive innervation.
- Peripheral GABA receptors regulate colonic afferent excitability and visceral nociception. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol 2019; 597(13):3425-3439
- CONCLUSIONS: While the presence of GABA receptors on primary afferents has been well described, most functional analyses have focused on the regulation of transmitter release from central terminals and/or signalling in the sensory neuron cell body. Evidence that GABA receptors are transported to peripheral terminals and that there are several sources of GABA in the colon raise the possibility that GABA signalling in the periphery may influence colonic afferent excitability. GABAA and GABAB are present and functional in the colon, where exogenous agonists decrease the excitability of colonic afferents and suppress visceral nociception. Endogenous GABA release within the colon is sufficient to establish the resting excitability of colonic afferents as well as the behavioural response to noxious stimulation of the colon, primarily via GABAA receptors. Peripheral GABA receptors may serve as a viable target for the treatment of visceral pain.
- Extrinsic Primary Afferent Neurons Link Visceral Pain to Colon Motility Through a Spinal Reflex in Mice. [Journal Article]
- GGastroenterology 2019 May 08
- CONCLUSIONS: In mice, ExPANs regulate myenteric neuron activity and smooth muscle contraction via a parasympathetic spinal circuit, linking sensation and pain to motility.
- Colonic hypersensitivity and low-grade inflammation in a spontaneous animal model for functional gastrointestinal disorders. [Journal Article]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2019; 31(7):e13614
- CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a lamina propria eosinophil and mast cell infiltration preceding visceral hypersensitivity in the colon of the BBDP-N rat, reminiscent of patients with FGID. These findings help elucidating pathogenetic pathways in FGID and further validate the BBDP-N rat as an attractive model to study pathophysiology and therapy of FGID.
- Electroacupuncture Alleviated Referral Hindpaw Hyperalgesia via Suppressing Spinal Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) in TNBS-Induced Colitis Rats. [Journal Article]
- NPNeural Plast 2019; 2019:2098083
- Although referred pain or hypersensitivity has been repeatedly reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and experimental colitis rodents, little is known about the neural mechanisms. Spina…
Although referred pain or hypersensitivity has been repeatedly reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and experimental colitis rodents, little is known about the neural mechanisms. Spinal long-term potentiation (LTP) of nociceptive synaptic transmission plays a critical role in the development of somatic hyperalgesia in chronic pain conditions. Herein, we sought to determine whether spinal LTP contributes to the referral hyperalgesia in colitis rats and particularly whether electroacupuncture (EA) is effective to alleviate somatic hyperalgesia via suppressing spinal LTP. Rats in the colitis group (induced by colonic infusion of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, TNBS), instead of the control and vehicle groups, displayed evident focal inflammatory destruction of the distal colon accompanied not only with the sensitized visceromotor response (VMR) to noxious colorectal distension (CRD) but also with referral hindpaw hyperalgesia indicated by reduced mechanical and thermal withdrawal latencies. EA at Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) attenuated the severity of colonic inflammation, as well as the visceral hypersensitivity and referral hindpaw hyperalgesia in colitis rats. Intriguingly, the threshold of C-fiber-evoked field potentials (CFEFP) was significantly reduced and the spinal LTP was exaggerated in the colitis group, both of which were restored by EA treatment. Taken together, visceral hypersensitivity and referral hindpaw hyperalgesia coexist in TNBS-induced colitis rats, which might be attributed to the enhanced LTP of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. EA at ST36 and ST37 could relieve visceral hypersensitivity and, in particular, attenuate referral hindpaw hyperalgesia by suppressing the enhanced spinal LTP.
- Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate improves visceral sensation and gut barrier in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2019 Jun 05; 852:198-206
- Stress-induced altered visceral sensation and impaired gut barrier play an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These responses were demonstrated to be peripheral …
Stress-induced altered visceral sensation and impaired gut barrier play an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These responses were demonstrated to be peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) dependent and also mediated via proinflammatory cytokine in animal IBS model. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) is known to have anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing proinflammatory cytokine release. We hypothesized that DHEA-S improves stress-induced visceral changes and is beneficial for IBS treatment. We explored the effects of DHEA-S on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or repeated water avoidance stress (WAS)-induced visceral allodynia and increased colonic permeability (rat IBS models). The threshold of visceromotor response, i.e. abdominal muscle contractions induced by colonic balloon distention was electrophysiologically measured. Colonic permeability was estimated in vivo by quantifying the absorbed Evans blue in colonic tissue. DHEA-S abolished visceral allodynia and colonic hyperpermeability induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. It also blocked repeated WAS- or peripheral injection of CRF-induced visceral changes. These effects by DHEA-S in LPS model were reversed by bicuculline, a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antagonist, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor, naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, or sulpiride, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. However, domperidone, a peripheral dopamine D2 receptor antagonist did not modify the effects. Peripheral injection of astressin2-B, a selective CRF receptor subtype 2 (CRF2) antagonist also reversed these effects. In conclusion, DHEA-S blocked stress-induced visceral changes via GABAA, NO, opioid, central dopamine D2 and peripheral CRF2 signaling. DHEA-S may be useful for IBS treating.
- Activation of cannabinoid 2 receptor relieves colonic hypermotility in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome. [Journal Article]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2019; 31(6):e13555
- CONCLUSIONS: CB2 receptor may exert an important inhibitory effect in stress-induced colonic hypermotility by modulating NO synthesis through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. AM1241 could be used as a potential drug to treat disorders with colonic hypermotility.
- Ameliorating effects of optimized gastric electrical stimulation and mechanisms involving nerve growth factor and opioids in a rodent model of gastric hypersensitivity. [Journal Article]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2019; 31(5):e13551
- CONCLUSIONS: GES with optimized parameters improves gastric hypersensitivity induced by neonatal treatment of IA mediated peripherally by suppressing NGF and via the opioid mechanism involving the µ receptor. GES as a potential therapy for treating visceral pain may be explored in clinical studies.
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- Chronic colitis-induced visceral pain is associated with increased anxiety during quiescent phase. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2019 Jun 01; 316(6):G692-G700
- Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by repetition of flares and remission periods leading to chronic postinflammatory sequelae. Among postinflammatory sequelae, one-third of patients …
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by repetition of flares and remission periods leading to chronic postinflammatory sequelae. Among postinflammatory sequelae, one-third of patients with IBD are suffering from functional symptoms or psychological comorbidities that persist during remission. The aim of our study was to assess functional and behavioral sequelae of chronic colitis in rats with quiescent intestinal inflammation. Chronic colitis was induced by a weekly intrarectal injection of increasing concentrations of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) for 3 wk (15-45 mg of TNBS) in 30 rats, whereas the control rats (n = 24) received the vehicle. At 50 days post-TNBS, visceral sensitivity was assessed by visceromotor response to colorectal distension, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) expression was also quantified in the colon and dorsal root ganglia. Barrier function and inflammatory response were assessed by studying intestinal permeability, tight junction protein, myeloperoxidase activity, histological score, and cytokine production (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α). Anxiety behavioral tests were performed from 50 to 64 days after the last TNBS injection. Chronic TNBS induced 1) a visceral hypersensitivity (P = 0.03), 2) an increased colon weight-to-length ratio (P = 0.01), 3) higher inflammatory and fibrosis scores (P = 0.0390 and P = 0.0016, respectively), and 4) a higher colonic IL-6 and IL-10 production (P = 0.008 and P = 0.005, respectively) compared with control rats. Intestinal permeability, colonic production of TNF-α, myeloperoxidase activity, and TRPV1 expression did not differ among groups. Chronic TNBS increased anxiety-related behavior in the open-field test and in the acoustic stress test. In conclusion, chronic colitis induced functional sequelae such as visceral hypersensitivity and increased anxiety with a low-grade intestinal inflammation. Development of a representative animal model will allow defining novel therapeutic approaches to achieve a better management of IBD-related sequelae. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases have impaired quality of life. Therapeutic progress to control mucosal inflammation provides us an opportunity to develop novel approaches to understand mechanisms behind postinflammatory sequelae. We used a chronic colitis model to study long-term sequelae on visceral pain, gut barrier function, and psychological impact. Chronic colitis induced functional symptoms and increased anxiety in the remission period. It might define novel therapeutic approaches to achieve a better inflammatory bowel disease-related sequelae management.