- Elucidating cylindrospermopsin toxicity via synthetic analogues: An in vitro approach. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Jun 10; 234:139-147
- Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is an alkaloid biosynthesized by selected cyanobacteria, the cyto- and genotoxic properties of which have been studied extensively by in vitro and in vivo experimental models…
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is an alkaloid biosynthesized by selected cyanobacteria, the cyto- and genotoxic properties of which have been studied extensively by in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Various studies have separately established the role of uracil, guanidine and hydroxyl groups in CYN-induced toxicity. In the present study, we have prepared five synthetic analogues that all possess a uracil group but had variations in the other functionality found in CYN. We compared the in vitro toxicity of these analogues in common carp hepatocytes by assessing oxidative stress markers, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. All the analogues tested induced generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA fragmentation. However, the greatest increase in LPO and increase in caspase-3 activity, an apoptosis marker, was demonstrated by an analogue containing guanidine, hydroxyl and uracil functionalities similar to those found in CYN but lacking the complex tricyclic structure of CYN. We also report a crystal structure of an analogue lacking the hydroxyl group found in CYN which does not show intramolecular H-bonding interactions between the guanidine and the uracil functionalities. The observations made in this work supports the hypothesis that CYN toxicity is a result of an interplay between both of the uracil, hydroxyl and guanidine functional groups.
- Determination of hyaluronidase activity in Tityus spp. scorpion venoms and its inhibition by Brazilian antivenoms. [Journal Article]
- TToxicon 2019 Jun 14
- Hyaluronidases (HYALs) are enzymes ubiquitously found in venoms from diverse animals and seem to be related to venom spreading. HYAL activity might be important to Tityus spp. envenoming, since anti-…
Hyaluronidases (HYALs) are enzymes ubiquitously found in venoms from diverse animals and seem to be related to venom spreading. HYAL activity might be important to Tityus spp. envenoming, since anti-Tityus serrulatus HYAL (TsHYAL) rabbit antibodies neutralize T. serrulatus venom (TsV) lethality. The present work aimed to verify and compare HYAL activity of venoms from other Brazilian Tityus spp. (Tityus bahiensis, Tityus stigmurus and Tityus obscurus) and to test whether anti-TsHYAL antibodies and Brazilian horse therapeutic scorpion antivenom (produced by Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Butantan and Vital Brazil Institutes) can recognize and inhibit HYAL activity from these venoms. In ELISA assays, anti-TsHYAL and scorpion antivenoms recognized T. serrulatus, T. bahiensis and T. stigmurus venoms, however, they demonstrated weaker reaction with T. obscurus, which was also observed in Western blotting assay. Epitope mapping by SPOT assay revealed different binding patterns for each antivenom. The assay showed a weaker binding of scorpion antivenom produced by FUNED to peptides recognized by anti-TsHYAL antibodies. Anti-TsHYAL antibodies and antivenoms produced by Butantan and Vital Brazil institutes inhibited HYAL activity of all tested venoms in vitro, whereas FUNED antivenom did not show the same property. These results call attention to the importance of hyaluronidase inhibition, that can aid the improvement of antivenom production.
- hsa_circ_0091570 acts as a ceRNA to suppress hepatocellular cancer progression by sponging hsa-miR-1307. [Journal Article]
- CLCancer Lett 2019 Jun 14
- Alterations in circular RNA (circRNA) expression have a vital impact on the biological processes in cancer. Moreover, the expression pattern and roles of circRNAs in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) remai…
Alterations in circular RNA (circRNA) expression have a vital impact on the biological processes in cancer. Moreover, the expression pattern and roles of circRNAs in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) remain unclear. This study performed qRT-PCR to determine the regulated circRNAs in HCC tissues and cell lines. CCK8, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, colony formation, cell cycle assay, apoptotic assay, transwell, and wound healing assay were conducted to assess the function of hsa_circ_0091570 or miR-1307 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration in vitro. Mouse xenograft models were used to measure the functions of hsa_circ_0091570 in vivo. The decreased expression of hsa_circ_0091570 was associated with the pathological staging of HCC patients. Furthermore, inhibition of hsa_circ_0091570 promoted cell proliferation and migration, blocked cell apoptosis in HCC cell lines, and promoted tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. RNA immunoprecipitation assay verified the interaction of hsa_circ_0091570 and miR-1307. The miR-1307 inhibitor inhibited the function induced by hsa_circ_0091570 siRNA. Overall, hsa_circ_0091570 sponge miR-1307 as a ceRNA and regulate ISM1 expression by exerting functional roles in HCC.
- Evaluating approaches for scaling up community-based marine protected areas into socially equitable and ecologically representative networks. [Journal Article]
- CBConserv Biol 2019 Jun 17
- Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vital to marine conservation, but their coverage and distribution is insufficient to address declines in global biodiversity and fisheries. In response, many countri…
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vital to marine conservation, but their coverage and distribution is insufficient to address declines in global biodiversity and fisheries. In response, many countries have committed through the Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity to conserve 10% of the marine environment through 'ecologically representative' and 'equitably managed' MPAs by 2020. The rush to fulfill this commitment has raised concerns on how efforts to increase MPA coverage will affect other elements of Target 11, including representation and equity. We used a Philippines case study to assess and compare three alternative MPA planning approaches for biodiversity representation and equitable distribution of costs to small-scale fishers. MPAs in an 'opportunistic approach' were identified and supported by coastal communities. A 'donor-assisted approach' utilised local knowledge to select MPAs through a national-scale and donor-assisted conservation project. A 'systematic conservation planning approach' identified MPA locations through the spatial prioritization software 'Marxan with Zones' to achieve biodiversity objectives with minimal and equitable costs to fishers. The opportunistic approach was ineffective at representing biodiversity and resulted in inequitable costs to fishers. MPAs selected through the donor-assisted approach affected fishers disproportionately but provided near-optimal representation of a study region extent. With approximately the same MPA coverage, the systematic approach was the only approach that achieved all representation targets with minimal and equitable costs to fishers. Our results demonstrate the utility of systematic conservation planning to address key elements of Target 11 and highlight opportunities and pitfalls for planning MPAs in similar contexts. Article impact statement: Systematic conservation planning is more effective than ad hoc or donor approaches at deriving representative and equitable protected areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Inhibitory effect of corosolic acid on α-glucosidase: Kinetics, interaction mechanism and molecular simulation. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sci Food Agric 2019 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: These results may propose new insights into the functional research of corosolic acid from food sources as a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor in better controlling diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Evaluation of 3Mix-MP and pulpectomies in non-vital primary molars. [Journal Article]
- AOActa Odontol Latinoam 2019 Apr 01; 32(1):22-28
- Pulpectomies in primary molars are often hindered by several factors, including anatomical and physiological characteristics of posterior primary teeth and young patients' lack of cooperation with la…
Pulpectomies in primary molars are often hindered by several factors, including anatomical and physiological characteristics of posterior primary teeth and young patients' lack of cooperation with laborious treatments. This study was undertaken in search of easier but equally effective therapies that could eliminate infection, preserve the teeth and avoid extractions. The aim of the study was to estimate and compare clinical and radiographic success between pulp treatment with 3Mix-MP and pulpectomy with Maisto-Capurro paste in primary necrotic molars. A longitudinal prospective study was conducted at the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry of the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (20152017). The study included 46 primary molars with necrotic pulp of children without immune or metabolic compromise. Children and their legal guardians provided assent and informed consent. Selected molars were randomly divided into 2 groups: G1: Pulpectomy treatment with Maisto-Capurro paste; and G2: Treatment with 3Mix-MP paste. Treatments were evaluated at 1, 3, 6,12 and 18 months (intra and inter-rater agreement 0.92 and 0.84). Clinical success was considered to be the absence of any of the following: pain, sensitivity to percussion or palpation, swelling, fistula and non-physiological mobility, while radiographic success was considered to be: absence of internal or external non-physiological resorption, no progression or reduction of radiolucent periapical/interradicular lesion and evidence of bone regeneration. Percentages, 95% C.I., and CHI2 were calculated for the comparison between groups. Overall clinical success was 91.5% and 87.5% (p=0.48) and overall radiographic success was 88.3% and 82.3% (p=0.31) for G1 and G2 respectively. No significant clinical or radiographic difference was found between groups. Both treatments showed similar clinical and radiographic behavior during the study periods.
- Pharmacokinetics and Sedative Effects of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Ambulatory Pediatric Patients. [Journal Article]
- A&AAnesth Analg 2019 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine is relatively rapidly absorbed after IN administration and provides clinically meaningful but short-lasting sedation in pediatric patients.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- [Neurological consequences of alcoholism]. [Review]
- RMRev Med Liege 2019; 74(5-6):310-313
- Chronic alcohol consumption results in multiple peripheral and central nervous system dysfunctions. Some are due to the direct action of alcohol or its derivatives, others are induced by the vitamin …
Chronic alcohol consumption results in multiple peripheral and central nervous system dysfunctions. Some are due to the direct action of alcohol or its derivatives, others are induced by the vitamin deficiencies associated with alcoholism, others are eventually related to the failure of other vital organs, such as the liver. In this short review, we describe alcohol-induced neuropathy, Gayet-Wernicke syndrome, Korsakoff syndrome, alcoholic dementia, Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, alcoholic epilepsy and manifestations of alcohol withdrawal.
- Association of Disease Definition, Comorbidity Burden, and Prognosis With Hip Fracture Probability Among Late-Life Women. [Journal Article]
- JIMJAMA Intern Med 2019 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Women 80 years and older who have osteoporosis, including those with more comorbidities or poorer prognosis, have a high 5-year probability of hip fracture despite accounting for competing mortality risk. In contrast, among women without osteoporosis but at high fracture risk, competing mortality risk far outweighs hip fracture probability, especially among those with more comorbidities or worse prognosis.
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- Crystallization behavior of a confined CuZr metallic liquid film with a sandwich-like structure. [Journal Article]
- PCPhys Chem Chem Phys 2019 Jun 17
- Despite the fact that its crystal state is thermodynamically stable, Cu64Zr36 alloy is prone to form metastable glass at a high cooling rate. However, the confinement can induce nano-crystallization …
Despite the fact that its crystal state is thermodynamically stable, Cu64Zr36 alloy is prone to form metastable glass at a high cooling rate. However, the confinement can induce nano-crystallization with a novel sandwich-like hierarchical structure consisting of pure Cu layers, pure Zr layers and mixed layers by conducting molecular dynamics simulations. The liquid-to-crystal transition temperature and interatomic repulsion softness display abnormal oscillations, instead of monotonous variation, as the wall-wall separation increases. When the confinement size is 10 Å and 12 Å, the transition temperature reaches a maximum, resulting from the pending new sandwich layer. The atomic movement and dynamical heterogeneity are demonstrated to play a vital role in the abnormal oscillation behavior of physical properties of the nano confined metallic glass. The sandwich-like structure can alter the Cu-Zr bond fraction, which eventually influences the liquid-to-crystal transition temperature and interatomic repulsion softness. Our findings provide a deep insight into the hierarchical nanostructures and its liquid-to-crystal transition characteristics under confinement at the atomic level.