- Effects of Dabigatran in Mouse Models of Aging and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy. [Journal Article]Front Neurol 2019; 10:966FN
- Oral anticoagulants are a critical component of stroke prevention, but carry a risk of brain hemorrhage. These hemorrhagic complications tend to occur in elderly individuals, especially those with predisposing conditions such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Clinical evidence suggests that non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are safer than traditional oral anticoagulants. We analyze…
Oral anticoagulants are a critical component of stroke prevention, but carry a risk of brain hemorrhage. These hemorrhagic complications tend to occur in elderly individuals, especially those with predisposing conditions such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Clinical evidence suggests that non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are safer than traditional oral anticoagulants. We analyzed whether the anticoagulant dabigatran produces cerebral microhemorrhage (the pathological substrate of MRI-demonstrable cerebral microbleeds) or intracerebral hemorrhage in aged mice with and without hemorrhage-predisposing angiopathy. We studied aged (22 months old) Tg2576 (a model of CAA) and wild-type (WT) littermate mice. Mice received either dabigatran etexilate (DE) (Tg N = 7; WT N = 10) or vehicle (Tg N = 9; WT N = 7) by gavage for 4 weeks. Anticoagulation effects of DE were confirmed using thrombin time assay. No mice experienced intracerebral hemorrhage. Cerebral microhemorrhage analysis, performed using Prussian-blue and H&E staining, showed no significant change in either number or size of cerebral microhemorrhage in DE-treated animals. Analysis of biochemical parameters for endothelial activation (ICAM-1), blood-brain barrier disruption (IgG, claudin-5, fibrinogen), microglial activation (Iba-1), or astrocyte activation (GFAP) showed neither exacerbation nor protective effects of DE in either Tg2576 or WT mice. Our study provides histological and biochemical evidence that aged mice, with or without predisposing factors for brain hemorrhage, tolerate anticoagulation with dabigatran. The absence of dabigatran-induced intracerebral hemorrhage or increased frequency of acute microhemorrhage may provide some reassurance for its use in high-risk patient populations.
- Rivaroxaban Versus Vitamin K Antagonist in Antiphospholipid Syndrome. [Journal Article]Ann Intern Med 2019AIM
- Rivaroxaban Versus Vitamin K Antagonist in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Randomized Noninferiority Trial. [Journal Article]Ann Intern Med 2019AIM
- CONCLUSIONS: Rivaroxaban did not show noninferiority to dose-adjusted VKAs for thrombotic APS and, in fact, showed a non-statistically significant near doubling of the risk for recurrent thrombosis.
- Reasons for early discontinuing or switching of antiplatelet therapy in elderly patients after acute coronary syndrome. [Journal Article]Coron Artery Dis 2019CA
- CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients of at least 75 years with NSTE-ACS, antiplatelet therapy is frequently discontinued prematurely, most often within 30 days. Main reasons for discontinuing are need for (N)OAC, undergoing CABG or type II ACS as final diagnosis and suffering from dyspnoea while on ticagrelor.
- Antithrombotic strategies after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Insights from a network meta-analysis. [Journal Article]Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019CC
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent TAVI had similar all-cause mortality rates among different antithrombotic strategies except OAC+DAPT. Patients on SAPT had significantly lower bleeding risk than those on DAPT, OAC + SAPT, and OAC + DAPT. Our results suggest SAPT is the preferred regimen when there is no indication for DAPT or OAC. When DAPT or OAC is indicated, DAPT + OAC should be avoided.
- Efficacy and Safety of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and High Thromboembolic Risk. A Systematic Review. [Systematic Review]Front Pharmacol 2019; 10:1048FP
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of DOACs is a reasonable alternative to vitamin K antagonists in AF patients with CHADS2 score ≥3, advanced age, and HF. The RI constitutes a useful, additional tool to facilitate clinicians in choosing DOACs or warfarin in particular category of AF patients.
- Revisiting the effects of omitting aspirin in combined antithrombotic therapies for atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndromes or percutaneous coronary interventions: meta-analysis of pooled data from the PIONEER AF-PCI, RE-DUAL PCI, and AUGUSTUS trials. [Journal Article]Europace 2019E
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the use of full-dose NOAC (Apixaban 5 mg, Dabigatran 150 mg) or Rivaroxaban 15 mg-based treatments in most AF patients with ACS or undergoing PCI. Notwithstanding the better safety of DAT, an initial course of NOAC-based TAT may be desirable in most AF patients.
- Adherence and persistence to direct oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation: a population-based study. [Journal Article]Heart 2019H
- CONCLUSIONS: Adherence and persistence to OACs are low at 1 year with heterogeneity across drugs and over time at individual and system levels. Better understanding of contributory factors will inform interventions to improve adherence and persistence across OACs in individuals and populations.
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- Effectiveness and Safety of Primary Thromboprophylaxis in Children with Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Network Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]Thromb Haemost 2019TH
- Thromboembolism (TE) is a well-recognized complication of pediatric cancer and can lead to mortality and excess morbidity. There is conflicting evidence about the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis in children. We conducted a systematic literature review and network meta-analysis of primary pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in children and adolescents (0-21 years) with cancer. The pr…
Thromboembolism (TE) is a well-recognized complication of pediatric cancer and can lead to mortality and excess morbidity. There is conflicting evidence about the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis in children. We conducted a systematic literature review and network meta-analysis of primary pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in children and adolescents (0-21 years) with cancer. The primary outcomes were objectively proven TE and major bleeding. The network meta-analysis included comparisons of multiple alternatives simultaneously: antithrombin (AT) replacement, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), and standard of care (SOC) defined as no thromboprophylaxis or low-dose heparin for catheter patency. Six articles describing 1,318 patients were included (mean age: 6.7 years, 56.7% male). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia was the underlying diagnosis in 97.5% of patients. All studies were considered at moderate or high risk of bias. LMWH was the only agent associated with lower odds of TE compared with SOC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.81). No statistically significant difference was detected between other thromboprophylaxis modalities and SOC. Tau2 and I 2 suggested a high degree of heterogeneity. No statistically significant differences in the odds of major bleeding were found between AT replacement, LMWH, VKA, and SOC. Current evidence suggests that low-dose LMWH is effective and safe to prevent TE in children with cancer but is insufficient to conclude if AT replacement or VKA are effective thromboprophylaxis options. Further research, notably randomized controlled trials enrolling children with diverse types of cancer, is crucially needed.