- Volubility, Consonant Emergence, and Syllabic Structure in Infants and Toddlers Later Diagnosed With Childhood Apraxia of Speech, Speech Sound Disorder, and Typical Development: A Retrospective Video Analysis. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2019 Jun 10; :1-19
- Purpose Studies of infants' early vocalizations have proven helpful in describing the developmental characteristics of various communication disorders. However, few studies have addressed the early v…
Purpose Studies of infants' early vocalizations have proven helpful in describing the developmental characteristics of various communication disorders. However, few studies have addressed the early vocalizations of infants and toddlers who were later diagnosed, as older children, with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). We refer to these infants and toddlers as LCAS. Extant studies also often lack a comparison group of infants and toddlers who were later diagnosed, as older children, with a speech sound disorder (SSD). We refer to these infants and toddlers as LSSD. We aimed to compare the volubility, consonant emergence, and syllabic structure from birth to age of 2 years, as observed in home videos, among 3 groups of infants and toddlers: LCAS, LSSD, and typically developing (TD). Method We assessed the speech-language skills of 17 children (3.5-8.8 years old; 7 with CAS, 5 with SSD, and 5 TD) and transcribed home videos (obtained from parents) of these same children from birth to age of 2 years. Early vocalizations were coded as nonresonant or resonant. Nonresonant vocalizations could not be transcribed with the International Phonetic Alphabet. Resonant (speechlike) vocalizations were broadly transcribed, and resonant consonants were categorized by place, manner, and voicing. Results Effect size comparisons revealed LCAS infants and toddlers were less voluble, used fewer resonant consonants, had a less diverse phonetic repertoire, and acquired resonant consonants later than either the LSSD or TD participants. For LSSD infants and toddlers, means for these dependent variables were lower than the means demonstrated by the TD group, but effect size were not strong due to LSSD variability. Conclusions Findings imply there might be clinical "red flags" that could assist the identification of infants and toddlers at risk for later diagnosis of CAS. Data did not support red flags for identifying infants and toddlers at risk for later diagnosis of SSD. Because of significant study limitations, results obtained should be considered preliminary. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.8233334.
- Significance of gender in the attitude towards doctor-patient communication in medical students and physicians. [Journal Article]
- WKWien Klin Wochenschr 2016; 128(17-18):663-8
- CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates a gender-dependent communication style influenced by stereotypes. At the establishment of communication training these differences should be taken into account, especially to strengthen male communication skills and improve their attitudes.
- A study on paracetamol cardiotoxicity. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2016 07 14; 17(1):30
- CONCLUSIONS: Though literature review support cardiotoxicity following paracetamol poisoning, our study does not provide enough evidence for this. Continuous cardiac monitoring, serial troponin and echocaediogram assessment would be voluble adjunct in its management. Further experiments and research in this subject would be useful with a larger number of samples to further evaluate this important problem.
- Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis. [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2016 Apr 01; 157:265-9
- Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a var…
Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life.
- [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus III. Momordica (Momordica charantia)]. [Journal Article]
- CSCeska Slov Farm 2015; 64(4):126-32
- Momordica charantia is a thermophilic voluble plant from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. In central Europe, momordica requires greenhouse plantations. Mature f…
Momordica charantia is a thermophilic voluble plant from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. In central Europe, momordica requires greenhouse plantations. Mature fruits resemble a cucumber or a pumpkin and can be used as other similar vegetables. Crude fruits are very bitter and refreshing. For centuries the plant has been known in Chinese traditional medicine for its antidiabetic effects as well as for the treatment of cancer or infections caused by worms, viruses and malaria. Antidiabetic effects are attributed namely to cucurbitane type triterpenoids, charantin, p-insulin and 9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid. These substances in momordica preparations show antidiabetic effectiveness in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion and deceasing insulin resistance or glucose absorption from the gut. Beside this main effect the extract possesses certain neuroprotective and antioxidant effects (especially p9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid) and contributes to normalize blood lipid and adipokine levels which results in the normalization of metabolic syndrome. Antidiabetic effectiveness of momordica was compared to active treatment with several oral antidiabetic drugs and proved comparable effects. However, the number of studies is limited and their methodological approach variable. Therefore, the evidence is so far inconclusive.
- Preservation of propositional speech in a pure anomic: the importance of an abstract vocabulary. [Case Reports]
- NNeurocase 2003; 9(6):465-81
- We describe a detailed quantitative analysis of the propositional speech of a patient, FAV, who became severely anomic following a left occipito-temporal infarction. FAV showed a selective noun retri…
We describe a detailed quantitative analysis of the propositional speech of a patient, FAV, who became severely anomic following a left occipito-temporal infarction. FAV showed a selective noun retrieval deficit in naming to confrontation and from verbal description. Nonetheless, his propositional speech was fluent and content-rich. To quantify this observation, three picture description-based tasks were designed to elicit spontaneous speech. These were pictures of professional occupations, real world scenes and stylised object scenes. FAV's performance was compared and contrasted with that of 5 age- and sex-matched control subjects on a number of variables including speech production rate, volume of output, pause frequency and duration, word frequency, word concreteness and diversity of vocabulary used. FAV's propositional speech fell within the range of normal control performance on the majority of measurements of quality, quantity and fluency. Only in the narrative tasks which relied more heavily upon a concrete vocabulary, did FAV become less voluble and resort to summarising the scenes in an manner. This dissociation between virtually intact propositional speech and a severe naming deficit represents the purest case of anomia currently on record. We attribute this dissociation in part to the preservation of his ability to retrieve his abstract word vocabulary. Our account demonstrates that poor performance on standard naming tasks may be indicative of only a narrowly defined word retrieval deficit. However, we also propose the existence of a feedback circuit which guides sentence construction by providing information regarding lexical availability.
- Speech and prosody characteristics of adolescents and adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2001; 44(5):1097-115
- Speech and prosody-voice profiles for 15 male speakers with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) and 15 male speakers with Asperger syndrome (AS) were compared to one another and to profiles for 53 typicall…
Speech and prosody-voice profiles for 15 male speakers with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) and 15 male speakers with Asperger syndrome (AS) were compared to one another and to profiles for 53 typically developing male speakers in the same 10- to 50-years age range. Compared to the typically developing speakers, significantly more participants in both the HFA and AS groups had residual articulation distortion errors, uncodable utterances due to discourse constraints, and utterances coded as inappropriate in the domains of phrasing, stress, and resonance. Speakers with AS were significantly more voluble than speakers with HFA, but otherwise there were few statistically significant differences between the two groups of speakers with pervasive developmental disorders. Discussion focuses on perceptual-motor and social sources of differences in the prosody-voice findings for individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorders as compared with findings for typical speakers, including comment on the grammatical, pragmatic, and affective aspects of prosody.
- Profiling fluent aphasic spontaneous speech: a comparison of two methodologies. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Disord Commun 1995; 30(3):333-45
- Grammatical features of fluent aphasic speakers have not received as much attention as those exhibited by non-fluent aphasic speakers. In part, this neglect reflects the difficulty of applying consis…
Grammatical features of fluent aphasic speakers have not received as much attention as those exhibited by non-fluent aphasic speakers. In part, this neglect reflects the difficulty of applying consistent analytical procedures to fluent aphasic speech. For the analytical process to be meaningful, the methodology must be robust, replicable and capable of dealing with the voluble and non-specific output which is often typical of these speakers, and yet be sensitive enough to reveal subtle grammatical differences between aphasic and normal speech. In this paper the methodological problems encountered in applying analytical procedures to spontaneous speech data are discussed. Two different procedures for analysing speech data are compared and applied to samples of fluent aphasic and normal speech. Both procedures reveal that (compared with normal speakers), although these aphasic speakers are capable of producing some well-constructed grammatical structures, the distribution of these structures may differ compared with the distribution exhibited by normal speakers. These results suggest that complex aspects of grammatical organisation may be compromised in some fluent aphasic speakers.
- The voluble brother-in-law. [Case Reports]
- HCHastings Cent Rep 1993 Jan-Feb; 23(1):30; discussion 30-1