- Association of stroke and bleed events in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with direct oral anticoagulant prescriptions in NHS England between 2013 and 2016. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0218878
- Prescription of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) compared to warfarin for treating atrial fibrillation patients have increased substantially since their introduction in the England's National Health…
Prescription of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) compared to warfarin for treating atrial fibrillation patients have increased substantially since their introduction in the England's National Health Service. Assessment of the risk of strokes and bleeds in relation to the large-scale uptake in DOACs compared to warfarin at the clinical commissioning group (CCG) level needs to be carried out. Publicly available- aggregated, CCG level, multi-source health and prescription records data were interrogated to investigate the association between prescription rate of DOACs and stroke/ bleed events during the period of 2013 to 2016. Variability of prescription rates and patient numbers across 208 CCGs were used to infer the effect of DOACs on stroke and bleed risk. Relative risk (RR) and 95% credible intervals (CI) were estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo approach in JAGS. During the study period, the proportion of DOAC prescriptions increased at an average rate of 122% per annum. DOAC prescription was association with a 50% reduction in ischaemic (RR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.57) and haemorrhagic stroke (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.77). In contrast, DOAC prescription reached significant association with reduction in gastrointestinal bleeds (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73-0.98) but not clinically relevant bleeds (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.85-1.05). Sex stratified data showed significant association between DOAC prescription and reduction in haemorrhagic stroke risk (RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.28-0.52) and gastrointestinal bleeds (RR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.63-0.93) in males only. Age stratified data suggested significant association with reduction in risk of both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes in patients aged 70 years and above, and reduction in risk of clinically relevant and gastrointestinal bleeds in patients aged 70-79 years only. Publicly available health and prescription data for the English population indicates reduction in stroke and bleed risk in specific age and sex sub-groups with the uptake of DOACs compared to warfarin between 2013 and 2016.
- Potential Role of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in the Management of Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia. [Journal Article]
- PPharmacotherapy 2019 Jun 24
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition secondary to unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin exposure. This immune-mediated drug reacti…
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition secondary to unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin exposure. This immune-mediated drug reaction manifests as thrombocytopenia with a paradoxical hypercoagulable state that can result in life-threatening thrombosis. It is imperative to ensure cessation of heparin-based products as soon as HIT is identified. Traditional treatment options include argatroban, bivalirudin, fondaparinux, and danaparoid with a transition to warfarin upon platelet recovery. These anticoagulants are notwithstanding limitations including parenteral administration and routine lab monitoring leading to prolonged hospitalizations emphasizing the need for new therapies. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been increasingly investigated for the management of HIT and may overcome the aforementioned challenges of current therapies. The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the current HIT guidelines, limitations to contemporary treatment options, provide insight on the emerging evidence for the DOACs rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran, and a clinical summary for their use in this setting. The PubMed, Google Scholar, and Medline databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature from January 1, 2012 to June 31, 2018. Twenty-seven articles met inclusion criteria for review: 1 prospective trial, 5 retrospective cohort studies, and 21 case reports totaling 104 patients treated with a DOAC for HIT. The DOACs prevented new and recurrent thrombosis in 98% (n=102) of cases and bleeding complications occurred in 3% (n=3). While current literature remains limited, it is suggestive of a potential role of DOACs for HIT, which has led to their integration into the 2018 American Society Hematology Guidelines with a conditional recommendation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Control of Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Warfarin: A Study from the Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Monit 2019 Jun 24; 25:4691-4698
- CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese patients with NVAF, warfarin anticoagulation was associated with lower TTR and less stable anticoagulation than in current guidelines, and risk factors for reduced safety and efficacy were identified.
- Increased risk of hematoma with uninterrupted warfarin in patients undergoing implantation of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator. [Journal Article]
- PCPacing Clin Electrophysiol 2019 Jun 24
- CONCLUSIONS: The uninterrupted use of warfarin in the perioperative period of S-ICD implantation is associated with an increased risk of lateral pocket hematoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Cost-Effectiveness of Left Atrial Appendage Closure for Stroke Reduction in Atrial Fibrillation: Analysis of Pooled, 5-Year, Long-Term Data. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Heart Assoc 2019 Jul 02; 8(13):e011577
- Background Recent publications reached conflicting conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) with the Watchman device (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA) for s…
Background Recent publications reached conflicting conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) with the Watchman device (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA) for stroke risk reduction in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). This analysis sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of LAAC relative to both warfarin and nonwarfarin oral anticoagulants (NOACs) using pooled, long-term data from the randomized PROTECT AF (Watchman Left Atrial Appendage System for Embolic Protection in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation) and PREVAIL (Prospective Randomized Evaluation of the Watchman LAA Closure Device in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Versus Long-Term Warfarin) trials. Methods and Results A Markov model was constructed from a US payer perspective with a lifetime (20-year) horizon. LAAC clinical event rates and stroke outcomes were from pooled PROTECT AF and PREVAIL trial 5-year data. Warfarin and NOAC inputs were derived from published meta-analyses. The model was populated with a cohort of 10 000 patients, aged 70 years, at moderate stroke and bleeding risk. Sensitivity analyses were performed. LAAC was cost-effective relative to warfarin by year 7 ($48 674/quality-adjusted life-year) and dominant (more effective and less costly) by year 10. LAAC became cost-effective and dominant compared with NOACs by year 5. Over a lifetime, LAAC provided 0.60 more quality-adjusted life-years than warfarin and 0.29 more than NOACs. In sensitivity analyses, LAAC was cost-effective relative to warfarin and NOACs in 98% and 95% of simulations, respectively. Conclusions Using pooled, 5-year PROTECT AF and PREVAIL trial data, LAAC proved to be not only cost-effective, but cost saving relative to warfarin and NOACs. LAAC with the Watchman device is an economically viable stroke risk reduction strategy for patients with AF seeking an alternative to lifelong anticoagulation.
- Real-world assessment of off-label direct oral anticoagulant dosing for venous thromboembolism. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thromb Thrombolysis 2019 Jun 22
- Preferred anticoagulation therapy for venous thromboembolism (VTE) has shifted from warfarin to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Adherence to DOAC prescribing information is an important quality m…
Preferred anticoagulation therapy for venous thromboembolism (VTE) has shifted from warfarin to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Adherence to DOAC prescribing information is an important quality measure as off-label doses have been associated with increased risk of adverse events (AEs). To identify the prevalence, outcomes, and patient characteristics associated with off-label DOAC dosing during VTE treatment. Patients receiving DOAC for VTE treatment discharged from University of Utah Health (UUH) over a 90-day period were identified. Dosing was classified as "labeled" or "off-label" based on concordance with manufacturer prescribing information. AEs (thromboembolic events, bleeding, death) occurring within 90 days after discharge were identified. Out of 195 patients, 154 (79.0%) received labeled dosing, 31 (15.9%) received off-label dosing, and 10 (5.1%) were indeterminate. Two-thirds of off-label doses were higher than recommended and three-fourths occurred during extended treatment (more than 90 days post-VTE). Off-label dosing rates dropped to 5.6% when 6-month dose reductions were not required. Off-label dosing was associated with apixaban use and extended phase treatment (p < 0.001). No association was found between off-label dosing and age, renal function, prescriber rationale for dose selection, or Thrombosis Clinic referral. AEs were experienced by 18 (11.7%) and 3 (9.7%) patients in the labeled and off-label groups, respectively (p = 0.77). Bleeding events comprised 46.2% of AEs. The rate of off-label DOAC dosing for VTE at UUH was within rates reported in prior studies, occurred primarily with extended-duration apixaban, and did not result in a higher rate of AEs.
- Higher initial weight-based heparin dosing is required with direct oral anticoagulants during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Interv Card Electrophysiol 2019 Jun 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients on DOACs require more heparin during AF ablation to achieve therapeutic ACT. We suggest an initial heparin dose of at least 150 units/kg in this subset of patients, particularly in those with a weight > 90 kg.
- Assessment of warfarin algorithms for hospitalized adults: searching for a safe dosing strategy. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thromb Thrombolysis 2019 Jun 21
- This study evaluates three warfarin dosing algorithms (Kimmel, Dawson, High Dose ≥ 2.5 mg) for hospitalized older adults. A random selection of 250 patients with overshoots (INR ≥ 5 after 48 h of hos…
This study evaluates three warfarin dosing algorithms (Kimmel, Dawson, High Dose ≥ 2.5 mg) for hospitalized older adults. A random selection of 250 patients with overshoots (INR ≥ 5 after 48 h of hospitalization) and 250 patients without overshoots were accessed from a database of 12,107 inpatients ≥ 65 years treated with chronic warfarin during hospitalization between January 1, 2014 and June 30, 2016. Algorithms were retrospectively applied to patients 2 days prior to overshoots in the overshoot group, and 2 days prior to the maximum INR reached after 48 h of hospitalization in the non-overshoot group. Patients were categorized as overdosed or not overdosed and compared using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression modeling determined predictors for overshoots. There was no significant difference between overdose and non-overdose groups for progressing to overshoots by the Kimmel (51.0% vs. 48.7%, p = 0.67) or Dawson (48.5 vs. 57.9%, p = 0.19) algorithms. The Low Dose Group (≤ 2.5 mg) was significantly more likely to experience an overshoot than the High Dose Group (56.6% vs. 45.5%, p = 0.04). The Low Dose Group was more likely to be older (81.4% vs. 71.1%, p = 0.02), female (63.5% vs. 49.8%, p = 0.02), weigh less (71.3 ± 21.9 vs. 79 ± 23.1, p = 0.002), and be prescribed amiodarone (16.6% vs. 8.1%, p = 0.01). While none of the algorithms predicted overshoots in logistic regression modeling, weight over 70 kg and black race remained protective. The High Dose Algorithm revealed that providers appropriately gave lower doses to patients at highest risk for warfarin sensitivity. Future studies are needed to investigate tools for inpatient warfarin dosing in older adults.
- Safety and effectiveness of oral factor Xa inhibitors versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients at high-risk for falls. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thromb Thrombolysis 2019 Jun 21
- Prescribers' concern regarding falls resulting in intracranial hemorrhage is often cited as a justification for under-utilization of oral anticoagulation. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of…
Prescribers' concern regarding falls resulting in intracranial hemorrhage is often cited as a justification for under-utilization of oral anticoagulation. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of oral factor Xa inhibitors versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients at high-risk for falls. Using MarketScan claims from 11/2012-3/2017, we identified adult, oral anticoagulation-naïve, new-initiators of oral factor Xa inhibitors or warfarin with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, ≥ 12 months of insurance coverage prior to starting oral anticoagulation and a predicted 2-year risk of falls ≥ 15%. Differences in baseline covariates between cohorts were balanced using inverse probability-of-treatment weights based on propensity scores. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for intracranial hemorrhage and stroke or systemic embolism were estimated. Among 25,144 nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients at high-risk for falls (observed fall rate = 11.8%/person-year), oral factor Xa inhibitor use was associated with a 43% (95% CI = 5-65%) reduced hazard of intracranial hemorrhage compared to warfarin. Oral factor Xa inhibitors did not significantly reduce the hazard of stroke or systemic embolism versus warfarin (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.66-1.11). Findings for the intracranial hemorrhage and stroke or systemic embolism endpoints were similar when apixaban and rivaroxaban were evaluated separately versus warfarin (p-interaction ≥ 0.64 for all). Oral factor Xa inhibitors reduced patients' risk of intracranial hemorrhage and were at least as effective in preventing stroke or systemic embolism as warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients at high-risk for falls.
New Search Next
- The SAMe-TT2R2 Score Predicts Warfarin Control in an Australian Population with Atrial Fibrillation. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Med 2019 Jun 20; 8(6)
- CONCLUSIONS: The SAMe-TT2R2 model differentiated Australian patients with reduced warfarin control, despite the exclusion of race. In Australia, the SAMe-TT2R2 score could assist clinicians in identifying Australian patients who may obtain reduced warfarin control and benefit from additional interventions such as a dedicated WCP.