- Frequency of nocturnal emissions and masturbation habits among virgin male religious teenagers. [Journal Article]
- RIRev Int Androl 2018 Dec 31
- CONCLUSIONS: Although masturbation and NE are frequent among virgin male religious Muslim teenagers, a significant proportion of young men believe that only masturbation, but not NE, is forbidden by religion. Watching TV seems to be associated with the frequency of NEs. Further studies are required to elicit the factors affecting frequency of NEs.
- Self-Recovery Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Modular Design. [Journal Article]
- ANACS Nano 2018 01 23; 12(1):359-367
- Superhydrophobicity, the enhanced hydrophobicity of surfaces decorated with textures of suitable size, is associated with a layer of gas trapped within surface roughness. The reduced liquid/solid con…
Superhydrophobicity, the enhanced hydrophobicity of surfaces decorated with textures of suitable size, is associated with a layer of gas trapped within surface roughness. The reduced liquid/solid contact makes superhydrophobicity attractive for many technological applications. This gas layer, however, can break down with the liquid completely wetting the surface. Experiments have shown that the recovery of the "suspended" superhydrophobic state from the wet one is difficult. Self-recovery-the spontaneous restoring of the gas layer at ambient conditions-is one of the dreams of research in superhydrophobicity as it would allow to overcome the fragility of superhydrophobicity. In this work we have performed a theoretical investigation of the wetting and recovery processes on a set of surfaces characterized by textures of different dimensions and morphology in order to elucidate the optimal parameters for avoiding wetting and achieving self-recovery. Results show that texture size in the nanometer range is a necessary but not sufficient condition for self-recovery: the geometry plays a crucial role, nanopillars prevent self-recovery, while surfaces with square pores exhibit self-recovery even at large positive pressures. However, the optimal morphology for self-recovery, the square pore, is suboptimal for the functional properties of the surface, for example, high slippage. Our calculations show that these two properties are related to regions of the texture separated in space: self-recovery is controlled by the characteristics of the bottom surface, while wetting and slip are controlled by the cavity mouth. We thus propose a modular design strategy which combines self-recovery and good functional properties: Square pores surmounted by ridges achieve self-recovery even at 2 MPa and have a very small liquid/solid contact area. The macroscopic calculations, which allowed us to efficiently devise design criteria, have been validated by atomistic simulations, with the optimal texture showing self-recovery on atomic time scales, τ ∼ 2 ns.
- [Eye Drops Instead of Intravitreal Injections? The Dream of Treating Macular Diseases by Topically Administered Drugs]. [Review]
- KMKlin Monbl Augenheilkd 2017; 234(9):1088-1093
- Background The introduction of VEGF inhibitors revolutionized treatment for age-related macular degeneration. However, it requires regular intravitreal (IVT) injections. Hence, replacement of IVT inj…
Background The introduction of VEGF inhibitors revolutionized treatment for age-related macular degeneration. However, it requires regular intravitreal (IVT) injections. Hence, replacement of IVT injections by topical, non-invasive eye drop treatment is subject to intensive research. Material and Methods Literature and database research on topical therapies for neovascular AMD. Results Several clinical projects with topical inhibitors of the VEGF pathway were initiated recently. Several candidate molecules were investigated and should have an efficacy potential in neovascular AMD given their ability to block the VEGF pathway. Preclinical experiments were quite promising. Still, translation into the clinical application has not been successful thus far. Differences in preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics are assumed to be the major barrier to successful translation. In addition, specific algorithms for monitoring of disease activity are required for successful clinical implementation; otherwise, a topical therapy may reduce the IVT injection number, but patients would not gain independence through fewer office visits. Discussion It is required to refine the scientific basis including preclinical models and screening cascades. This will enable targeted selection of future candidates for clinical development.
- Overcoming the ignorance of basic sex education. [Journal Article]
- NCNurs Child Young People 2016 Oct 07; 28(8):13
- Another academic year is underway, and schools in England can again choose whether or not to teach sex and relationships education (SRE). The evidence in favour of making SRE a requirement in all sch…
Another academic year is underway, and schools in England can again choose whether or not to teach sex and relationships education (SRE). The evidence in favour of making SRE a requirement in all schools is stacked higher than ever. One girl in four starts her period before she has learned about it, and 38% of boys do not learn anything about wet dreams before they experience them ( Sex Education Forum (SEF) 2016a ), which shows that even biological aspects of SRE are falling short.
- Sexual Health of Prison Inmates: A Case Study of Kano Central Prison, North Western Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- AJAfr J Reprod Health 2016; 20(1):98-103
- Sexual and reproductive health of prison inmates suffers from serious neglect in Nigeria. This mixed method study examined prison officials and 160 inmates on prison law and administration, and sexua…
Sexual and reproductive health of prison inmates suffers from serious neglect in Nigeria. This mixed method study examined prison officials and 160 inmates on prison law and administration, and sexual health of inmates. Most of the inmates examined (82.5%) reported having frequent sexual desire. Wet dreams (46.2%) and watching others' nakedness (25.0%) were the common means by which inmates manifest sexual desire. Majority relieve sexual desire through anal sex (72.0%) and masturbation (69.7%). Common forms of sexual violence observed include forceful fondling with genitalia (47.4%) and forceful insertion of finger/object in the anus (21.0%) in males and rape (15.8%) in females. All victims were younger inmates (18 - 34 years). There is a need for legislation on sexual violence and exploring the practice of conjugal visits or furloughs as practiced in some countries.
- A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2014 Dec 01; 66:447-458
- Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency o…
Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full-scale measurements. Finally, it was shown that the representation of compression settling in the CFD model can significantly influence the prediction of sludge distribution in the SSTs under dry- and wet-weather flow conditions.
- Dolutegravir plus abacavir-lamivudine for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 2013 Nov 07; 369(19):1807-18
- CONCLUSIONS: Dolutegravir plus abacavir-lamivudine had a better safety profile and was more effective through 48 weeks than the regimen with efavirenz-tenofovir DF-emtricitabine. (Funded by ViiV Healthcare; SINGLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01263015 .).
- Effect of gender and race on the week 48 findings in treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients enrolled in the randomized, phase III trials ECHO and THRIVE. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- HMHIV Med 2012; 13(7):406-15
- CONCLUSIONS: Overall response rates were high for both RPV and EFV. No gender differences were observed. However, response rates were lower among Black patients, regardless of treatment group. Gender appeared to influence the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal dreams/nightmares for both treatments.
- First stirrings: cultural notes on orgasm, ejaculation, and wet dreams. [Review]
- JSJ Sex Res 2007; 44(2):122-34
- Both the findings and the limitations of numeric milestone research in sexology have a bearing on the pedagogical status of pleasure, as well as the cultural underpinnings of the notion of a psychose…
Both the findings and the limitations of numeric milestone research in sexology have a bearing on the pedagogical status of pleasure, as well as the cultural underpinnings of the notion of a psychosexual milestone. An overview is offered of international data pertaining to the chronology of three "milestones" in sexual autobiography: first orgasm (orgasmarche), first ejaculation (oigarche), and first wet dream (nocturnal emission). Methodological problems associated with the measurement of these variables are discussed. These problems are then situated in a culturalist perspective. It is concluded that orgasms are cultural artifacts in terms of their chronological occurrence as well as perceived salience, necessity, and "age appropriateness".
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- Evaluating bioaccumulation of suspected endocrine disruptors into periphytons and benthos in the Tama River. [Journal Article]
- WSWater Sci Technol 2003; 47(9):71-6
- There are two major routes through which fish are exposed to endocrine disruptors (EDs); one route is through water that is a habitat; the other is through aquatic food such as algae and benthos. Few…
There are two major routes through which fish are exposed to endocrine disruptors (EDs); one route is through water that is a habitat; the other is through aquatic food such as algae and benthos. Few studies on the bioaccumulation of EDs in food have been conducted. Therefore, we evaluated the concentration in food of nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), which were frequently detected in river water and in final discharge of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Japan. We also evaluated the estrogenicity of samples using recombinant yeast. NP concentrations ranged 0.1-0.4 microg/L in the river water, while they ranged 8-130 microg/kg-wet in the periphytons and 8-140 microg/kg-wet in the benthos. BPA concentrations ranged 0.02-0.15 microg/L in the river water, while they ranged 2-8.8 microg/kg-wet in the periphytons and 0.3-12 microg/kg-wet in the benthos. E2 concentrations ranged 0.0001-0.0076 microg/L in the water, while they ranged 0.09-2.26 microg/kg-wet in the periphytons and <0.01-0.22 microg/kg-wet in the benthos. The estrogenicity ranged 0.0001-0.0464 microg-E2equivalent/L in the water, while it ranged 3.4-66.8 microg-E2equivalent/kg-wet in the periphytons and 7.4-5458 microg-E2equivalent/kg-wet in the benthos. Bioaccumulation factors of NP are estimated as 160-650 for the periphytons, and 63-990 for the benthos, respectively. Bioaccumulation factors of BPA are estimated as 18-650 for the periphytons, and 8-170 for the benthos, respectively. Bioaccumulation factors of E2 are estimated as 64-1,200 for the periphytons, and 100-160 for the benthos, respectively. The ratios of the periphytons and the benthos to the water in terms of the estrogenicity were larger than those in terms of the chemicals. In particularly, the ratio of the benthos to the water is about 10(6) in the maximum. The results suggest that food may be a more important route for fish exposed to EDs in water environment.