- Effect of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larval Diet on Egg Quality and Parasitism by Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). [Journal Article]
- JIJ Insect Sci 2019 Jul 01; 19(4)
- Trichogramma spp., among the most common parasitoids used for augmentation biological control, often are mass-reared on eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller). To evaluate…
Trichogramma spp., among the most common parasitoids used for augmentation biological control, often are mass-reared on eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller). To evaluate removal of nutritional components from the E. kuehniella larval diet and reduce production costs, colonies were maintained using one of three diets: a standard diet consisting of eight ingredients, a reduced diet containing whole wheat flour, glycerol, and Brewer's yeast, or a third minimal diet of only whole wheat flour. The standard diet sustained the fastest larval development, female pupae with the greatest mass, the highest level of adult emergence, and production of the most eggs per female. Eggs from moths reared as larvae on the standard or reduced diet had equivalent mass, length, and percent hatch. Females from larvae fed the minimal diet produced eggs with the least mass that were shorter and had the lowest percent hatch. Eggs from the three E. kuehniella colonies were exposed separately to Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko females to determine their acceptance for oviposition. More of the eggs from the standard diet were parasitized by the females, eggs from the reduced and minimal diets being less acceptable. The percent emergence of the parasitoids was the same regardless of diet; however, the largest wasps emerged from the standard diet eggs and a greater proportion of them were females. Consequently, the standard E. kuehniella larval diet resulted in the highest rate of reproduction and robust eggs that produced superior T. brassicae wasps.
- An improved biotic ligand model (BLM) for predicting Co(II)-toxicity to wheat root elongation: The influences of toxic metal speciation and accompanying ions. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jul 15; 182:109433
- In order to explore the effects of pH and accompanying ions on divalent cobalt (Co(II)) toxicity to the wheat root elongation, an improved biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict Co(II) toxicity was dev…
In order to explore the effects of pH and accompanying ions on divalent cobalt (Co(II)) toxicity to the wheat root elongation, an improved biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict Co(II) toxicity was developed in solution culture. The results showed that the Co(II)-toxicity decreased with the increases of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ activities, and the activity of Na+ had no impact on the Co(II)-toxicity. High H+ activity reduced the Co(II)-toxicity by the competitive effect of H+, while low H+ activity affected the toxicity by the change in the type of Co(II) in culture medium. Co2+ and CoOH+ were toxic to wheat root elongation, and Co(OH)2 was not. On the basis of BLM theory, the conditional equilibrium constants for Co2+, CoOH+, H+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ were obtained: logKCoBL = 4.65, logKCoOHBL = 6.62, logKHBL = 4.53, logKMgBL = 3.65, logKCaBL = 2.36 and logKKBL = 2.17. Free Co2+ and CoOH+, and the competitions of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were suggested to be considered when developing the Co(II)-BLM.
- Stage-specific functional relationships between Tub1 and Tub2 beta-tubulins in the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum. [Journal Article]
- FGFungal Genet Biol 2019 Jul 15; :103251
- The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum contains two β-tubulin genes TUB1 and TUB2 that differ in functions during vegetative growth and sexual reproduction. To further characterize their fun…
The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum contains two β-tubulin genes TUB1 and TUB2 that differ in functions during vegetative growth and sexual reproduction. To further characterize their functional relationship, in this study we determined the co-localization of Tub1 and Tub2 and assayed their expression levels in different mutants and roles in DON production. Tub1 co-localized with Tub2 to the same regions of microtubules in conidia, hyphae, and ascospores. Whereas deletion of TUB1 had no obvious effect on the transcription of TUB2 and two α-tubulin genes (TUB4 and TUB5), the tub2 mutant was up-regulated in TUB1 transcription. To assay their protein expression levels, polyclonal antibodies that could specifically detect four α- and β-tubulin proteins were generated. Western blot analyses showed that the abundance of Tub1 proteins was increased in tub2 but reduced in tub4 and tub5 mutants. Interestingly, protein expression of Tub4 and Tub5 was decreased in the tub1 mutant in comparison with the wild type, despite a lack of obvious changes in their transcription. In contrast, deletion of TUB2 had no effect on translation of TUB4 and TUB5. Ectopic expression of Tub2-mCherry partially recovered the growth defect of the tub1 mutant but did not rescue its defect in sexual reproduction. Expression of Tub1-GFP in the tub2 mutant also partially rescued its defects in vegetative growth, suggesting that disturbance in the balance of α- and β-tubulins contributes to mutant defects. The tub2 but not tub1 mutant was almost blocked in DON biosynthesis. Expression of TRI genes, toxisome formation, and DON-related cellular differentiation were significantly reduced in the tub2 mutant. Overall, our results showed that Tub1 and Tub2 share similar subcellular localization and have overlapping functions during vegetative growth but they differ in functions in DON production and ascosporogenesis in F. graminearum.
- Genotype x environment interaction and genetic gain for grain yield and grain quality traits in Turkish spring wheat released between 1964 and 2010. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219432
- The study was conducted to determine the effects of genotype (G), environment (E), their interaction (GEI) and genetic gain on yield and grain quality traits in Turkish spring wheat cultivars release…
The study was conducted to determine the effects of genotype (G), environment (E), their interaction (GEI) and genetic gain on yield and grain quality traits in Turkish spring wheat cultivars released between 1964 and 2010. We conducted a multi-environment trial at three testing locations: Adana, Adapazarı, and Izmir, during the 2009, 2011 and 2013 cropping seasons and tested 35 cultivars released by the respective breeding programs. Allelic variations of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) and 1B/1R translocation was also determined and evaluated in all cultivars. Comparing yield across three locations, Adana (6416 kg ha-1) yield was relatively higher than in Izmir (5887 kg ha-1) and Adapazarı (5205 kg ha-1) (P<0.001). Overall, GY was influenced by the varieties, testing location and breeding programs (P<0.001). Cultivars from Izmir breeding program performed relatively better (6174 kg ha-1) than those from Adana (5996 kg ha-1) and Adapazarı (5351 kg ha-1) (<0.001). We recommend Ziyabey-98, Menemen, and Basribey-95, for stable grain yield in spring wheat production across the studied regions because of their wide adaptability, and Pamukova-97 for future breeding to improve grain quality parameters. We found three breeding programs have successfully increased the grain yield and quality traits for 46 years. As a group, cultivars released after 2000 had the highest yield indicating breeding progress. Genetic gain for GY was 30.9 kg ha-1 per year from 1964 with annual increase compared to the yield of older cultivar Akova B-2 (4102 kg ha-1) which constitutes a 0.75% rate of genetic gain. Improvement in grain quality was related to change in protein composition rather than an increase in protein content whereas yield improvement seems to mainly be related to increases in test weight and 1000 kernel weight. High molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 5+10 showed an increase in frequency whereas 2+12 showed a decrease over the breeding period.
- Development of mlo-based resistance in tetraploid wheat against wheat powdery mildew. [Journal Article]
- TATheor Appl Genet 2019 Jul 17
- Powdery mildew is a severe disease in wheat. In barley, durable resistance exists, based on non-functionality of the Mlo gene. As a model to analyse the effects of mutagenesis in the homoeologous Mlo…
Powdery mildew is a severe disease in wheat. In barley, durable resistance exists, based on non-functionality of the Mlo gene. As a model to analyse the effects of mutagenesis in the homoeologous Mlo genes of wheat, we developed mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in tetraploid durum wheat. To obtain Mlo mutations, we screened a TILLING population developed in tetraploid wheat "Kronos" for which the captured exome sequence of > 1500 lines is available. This resulted in 23 mutants for Mlo-A1 and 26 non-redundant mutants for Mlo-B1. Two Mlo-A1 and four Mlo-B1 mutants were crossed to obtain eight F2 mutant lines that showed a range of phenotypes from susceptibility to full resistance. Pot experiments under semi-field conditions confirmed the resistance levels for six of the mutants without any signs of adverse pleiotropic effects. Resistance ranking was similar across six powdery mildew isolates, indicating no isolate specificity of the mlo-based resistance. The effect of mutations in the Mlo-B1 gene was stronger than in the Mlo-A1 gene, probably reflecting differences in wild-type Mlo gene expression levels. Strong partial resistance effects were observed with single mlo-B1 mutations hence, revealing a dosage effect of mlo mutant alleles. Two of the four mlo-B1 mutations (W163* and P335L) were very strong; however, the highest combined effect was observed with the MloA-P335S/MloB-P335L combination, suggesting that non-functional, but full-length Mlo proteins might have the strongest effect compared with nonsense mutations. Our results show that mlo-based resistance might offer possibilities to introduce durable protection in tetraploid wheat against powdery mildew.
- The ER Lumenal Hsp70 Protein FpLhs1 Is Important for Conidiation and Plant Infection in Fusarium pseudograminearum. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2019; 10:1401
- Heat shock protein 70s (Hsp70s) are a class of molecular chaperones that are highly conserved and ubiquitous in organisms ranging from microorganisms to plants and humans. Hsp70s play key roles in ce…
Heat shock protein 70s (Hsp70s) are a class of molecular chaperones that are highly conserved and ubiquitous in organisms ranging from microorganisms to plants and humans. Hsp70s play key roles in cellular development and protecting living organisms from environmental stresses such as heat, drought, salinity, acidity, and cold. However, their functions in pathogenic fungi are largely unknown. Here, a total of 14 FpHsp70 genes were identified in Fusarium pseudograminearum, including 3 in the mitochondria, 7 in the cytoplasm, 2 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), 1 in the nucleus, and 1 in the plastid. However, the exon-intron boundaries and protein motifs of the FpHsp70 have no consistency in the same subfamily. Expression analysis revealed that most FpHsp70 genes were up-regulated during infection, implying that FpHsp70 genes may play important roles in F. pseudograminearum pathogenicity. Furthermore, knockout of an ER lumenal Hsp70 homolog FpLhs1 gene reduced growth, conidiation, and pathogenicity in F. pseudograminearum. These mutants also showed a defect in secretion of some proteins. Together, FpHsp70s might play essential roles in F. pseudograminearum and FpLhs1 is likely to act on the development and virulence by regulating protein secretion.
- Mining the Drilosphere: Bacterial Communities and Denitrifier Abundance in a No-Till Wheat Cropping System. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2019; 10:1339
- Earthworms play important roles in no-till cropping systems by redistributing crop residue to lower soil horizons, providing macropores for root growth, increasing water infiltration, enhancing soil …
Earthworms play important roles in no-till cropping systems by redistributing crop residue to lower soil horizons, providing macropores for root growth, increasing water infiltration, enhancing soil quality and organic matter, and stimulating nitrogen cycling. The soil impacted by earthworm activity, including burrows, casts, and middens, is termed the drilosphere. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of earthworms on soil microbial community composition in the drilosphere at different landscape slope positions. Soil cores (50 cm depth) were extracted from three landscape locations (top, middle, and bottom slope positions) on a sloping aspect of a no-till wheat farm. Soil was sampled at the bottom of the soil core from inside multiple earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) channels (drilosphere) and from adjacent bulk soil. Bacterial communities were characterized for 16S rRNA gene diversity using high-throughput sequencing and functional denitrifier gene abundance (nirK, nirS, and nosZ) by quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities were structured primarily by the landscape slope position of the soil core followed by source (bulk versus drilosphere soil), with a significant interaction between core position and source. The families AKIW874, Chitinophagaceae, and Comamonadaceae and the genera Amycolatopsis, Caulobacter, Nocardioides, and Variovorax were more abundant in the drilosphere compared to the bulk soil. Most of the individual bacterial taxa enriched in the drilosphere versus bulk soil were members of Actinobacteria, including Micrococcales, Gaiellaceae, Solirubrobacterales, and Mycobacterium. In general, the greatest differences in communities were observed in comparisons of the top and bottom slope positions in which the bottom slope communities had significantly greater richness, diversity, and denitrifier abundance than the top slope position. Populations of denitrifiers (i.e., ratio of nirK+nirS to 16S rRNA) were more abundant in earthworm-impacted soils and there was a significant impact of L. terrestris on soil community composition which was observed only in the top landscape position. There were significant correlations between the abundance of nirK and nirS and taxa within Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Chloroflexi, suggesting a broad diversity of denitrifying bacteria. Earthworms influence the soil microbial communities, but the impact depends on the slope location in a variable landscape, which likely reflects different soil characteristics.
- Physicochemical Properties and Oxidative Stability of Milk Fortified with Spray-Dried Whey Protein Concentrate-Iron Complex and In Vitro Bioaccessibility of the Added Iron. [Journal Article]
- FTFood Technol Biotechnol 2019; 57(1):48-58
- In the present study, spray-dried whey protein concentrate-iron (WPC-Fe) complex was prepared using a laboratory-scale spray drier under the optimized conditions of inlet temperature 180 °C, flow rat…
In the present study, spray-dried whey protein concentrate-iron (WPC-Fe) complex was prepared using a laboratory-scale spray drier under the optimized conditions of inlet temperature 180 °C, flow rate 2.66 mL/min and total solids 15% with the objective to make iron compatible with food products. In order to remove the free iron from the bound iron, standardised method involving centrifugation and ultrafiltration was employed. Further, the retentate was subjected to spray drying to produce WPC-Fe complex. Milk fortified with WPC-Fe complex (γ(iron)=15 mg/L) showed non-significant difference in heat stability, rennet coagulation time, colour estimation, curd tension, viscosity and sensory attributes as compared to control milk. In vitro bioaccessibility of iron and induction period of the fat from milk fortified with WPC-Fe complex were found to be slightly higher (p<0.05) than that of milk fortified with iron alone. Therefore, milk can be fortified with up to 15 mg/L iron in the form of WPC-Fe complex without significantly affecting its physicochemical properties.
- Editorial for Special Issue "Molecular Advances in Wheat and Barley". [Editorial]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 Jul 16; 20(14)
- Along with maize and rice, allohexaploid bread wheat and diploid barley are the most cultivated crops in the world (FAOSTAT database, http://www.fao.org/faostat, accessed on 22 June 2019)[...].
Along with maize and rice, allohexaploid bread wheat and diploid barley are the most cultivated crops in the world (FAOSTAT database, http://www.fao.org/faostat, accessed on 22 June 2019)[...].
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- Effect of Sweet Corn Residue on Micronutrient Fortification in Baked Cakes. [Journal Article]
- FFoods 2019 Jul 16; 8(7)
- Owing to the concept of modern life and health, traditional baked foods are seeking transition. In this study, sweet corn residue (SCR) was used to replace wheat flour in cakes. We conducted sensory …
Owing to the concept of modern life and health, traditional baked foods are seeking transition. In this study, sweet corn residue (SCR) was used to replace wheat flour in cakes. We conducted sensory evaluation and texture analysis to assess sample quality. Also, we simulated digestion in vitro, and determined the content of total sugar and dietary fiber. The content of vitamin E and carotenoids were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and the content of folate was determined by a microbiological method. With the increase of SCR, the content of dietary fiber, folate, vitamin E, and carotenoids significantly increased, and the digestive characteristics improved simultaneously. Based on the above evaluations, SCRC2 (sweet corn residue cake with 60% substitution) had similar sensory quality to the control (pure wheat flour cake) and had the characteristics of slow digestibility and high micronutrients.