- PennPET Explorer: Design and Preliminary Performance of a Whole-body Imager. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nucl Med 2019 Jun 21
- CONCLUSIONS: The physical performance measurements validate the system design and lead to the high quality human studies. A more detailed examination of human imaging with this whole-body imager is presented in a companion paper.
- Feasibility of Multi-Contrast Imaging on Dual-Source Photon Counting Detector (PCD) CT: An Initial Phantom Study. [Journal Article]
- MPMed Phys 2019 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous imaging of I/Gd/Bi materials on DS-PCD-CT. Under the condition without cross-scattering, DS-PCD reduced the RMSE for quantification of material concentration in relative to a SS-PCD-CT system using chess mode. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Estimated Thyroid Inhalation Doses Based on Body Surface Contamination Levels of Evacuees After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Phys 2019; 117(1):1-12
- Doses of inhaled radionuclides received during evacuation might be correlated with amounts of those radionuclides on an evacuee's body surface. The purpose of the present study was to estimate thyroi…
Doses of inhaled radionuclides received during evacuation might be correlated with amounts of those radionuclides on an evacuee's body surface. The purpose of the present study was to estimate thyroid equivalent doses based on body surface contamination measured with a Geiger-Mueller survey meter on 2,087 evacuees from Tomioka, Okuma, Futaba, Naraha, Namie, Minamisoma, and other municipalities in Japan. The measurement value in cpm was translated into Bq cm according to the radionuclide composition obtained by germanium gamma-spectrometry analyses of two persons' clothing. Thyroid equivalent dose by inhalation was estimated by two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation based on the distribution of body surface radionuclide concentration and a uniform distribution of deposition velocity. For evacuees exposed twice on 12 and 15 March, the mean, median, and 90th percentile of inhalation thyroid equivalent dose for 1-y-old children were 21.4 mSv, 4.7 mSv, and 40.1 mSv for the Namie group; 7.3 mSv, 5.1 mSv, and 14.8 mSv for the Minamisoma group; and 2.3 mSv, 0.5 mSv, and 4.0 mSv for the group comprising Tomioka, Okuma, Futaba, and Naraha. These estimates are smaller than estimates in the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 2013 report but closer to estimates based on direct thyroid I measurement or indirect estimates based on Cs measurements made with a whole-body counter under the assumption that the ratio of I to Cs is 3.8.
- The biodistribution and clearance of AlbudAb, a novel biopharmaceutical medicine platform, assessed via PET imaging in humans. [Journal Article]
- EREJNMMI Res 2019 May 21; 9(1):45
- CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating the biodistribution of 89Zr-AlbudAb in healthy volunteers using a low radioactivity dose was successful (total subject exposure ~ 10 mSv). Results indicated rapid formation of reversible, but stable, complexes between AlbudAb and albumin upon dosing. 89Zr-AlbudAb demonstrated albumin-like pharmacokinetics, including limited renal elimination. This novel organ-specific distribution data for AlbudAbs in humans will facilitate a better selection of drug targets to prosecute using the AlbudAb platform and significantly contribute to modeling work optimizing dosing of therapeutic AlbudAbs in the clinic.
- Photon-counting Detector CT: System Design and Clinical Applications of an Emerging Technology. [Journal Article]
- RRadiographics 2019 May-Jun; 39(3):729-743
- Photon-counting detector (PCD) CT is an emerging technology that has shown tremendous progress in the last decade. Various types of PCD CT systems have been developed to investigate the benefits of t…
Photon-counting detector (PCD) CT is an emerging technology that has shown tremendous progress in the last decade. Various types of PCD CT systems have been developed to investigate the benefits of this technology, which include reduced electronic noise, increased contrast-to-noise ratio with iodinated contrast material and radiation dose efficiency, reduced beam-hardening and metal artifacts, extremely high spatial resolution (33 line pairs per centimeter), simultaneous multienergy data acquisition, and the ability to image with and differentiate among multiple CT contrast agents. PCD technology is described and compared with conventional CT detector technology. With the use of a whole-body research PCD CT system as an example, PCD technology and its use for in vivo high-spatial-resolution multienergy CT imaging is discussed. The potential clinical applications, diagnostic benefits, and challenges associated with this technology are then discussed, and examples with phantom, animal, and patient studies are provided. ©RSNA, 2019.
- Membrane Radiolabelling of Exosomes for Comparative Biodistribution Analysis in Immunocompetent and Immunodeficient Mice - A Novel and Universal Approach. [Journal Article]
- TTheranostics 2019; 9(6):1666-1682
- CONCLUSIONS: Membrane radiolabelling of exosomes is a reliable approach that allows for accurate live imaging and quantitative biodistribution studies to be performed on potentially all exosome types without engineering parent cells.
- Measurements and Monte Carlo Simulations of 241Am Activities in Three Skull Phantoms: EURADOS-USTUR Collaboration. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Phys 2019; 117(2):193-201
- An international intercomparison was organized by Working Group 7, Internal Dosimetry, of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group in collaboration with Working Group 6, Computational Dosimetry, for me…
An international intercomparison was organized by Working Group 7, Internal Dosimetry, of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group in collaboration with Working Group 6, Computational Dosimetry, for measurement and Monte Carlo simulation of Am in three skull phantoms. The main objectives of this combined exercise were (1) comparison of the results of counting efficiency in fixed positions over each head phantom using different germanium detector systems, (2) calculation of the activity of Am in the skulls, (3) comparison of Monte Carlo simulations with measurements (spectrum and counting efficiency), and (4) comparison of phantom performance. This initiative collected knowledge on equipment, detector arrangements, calibration procedures, and phantoms used around the world for in vivo monitoring of Am in exposed persons, as well as on the Monte Carlo skills and tools of participants. Three skull phantoms (BfS, USTUR, and CSR phantoms) were transported from Europe (10 laboratories) to North America (United States and Canada). The BfS skull was fabricated with real human bone artificially labeled with Am. The USTUR skull phantom was made from the US Transuranium and Uranium Registries whole-body donor (case 0102) who was contaminated due to an occupational intake of Am; one-half of the skull corresponds to real contaminated bone, the other half is real human bone from a noncontaminated person. Finally, the CSR phantom was fabricated as a simple hemisphere of equivalent bone and tissue material. The three phantoms differ in weight, size, and shape, which made them suitable for an efficiency study. Based on their own skull calibration, the participants calculated the activity in the three European Radiation Dosimetry Group head phantoms. The Monte Carlo intercomparison was organized in parallel with the measurement exercise using the voxel representations of the three physical phantoms; there were 16 participants. Three tasks were identified with increasing difficulty: (1) Monte Carlo simulation of the simple CSR hemisphere and the Helmholz Zentrum München high-purity germanium detector for calculating the counting efficiency for the 59.54 keV photons of Am, in established measurement geometry; (2) Monte Carlo simulation of particular measurement geometries using the BfS and USTUR voxel phantoms and the Helmholz Zentrum München high-purity germanium detector detector; and (3) application of Monte Carlo methodology to calculate the calibration factor of each participant for the detector system and counting geometry (single or multidetector arrangement) to be used for monitoring a person in each in vivo facility, using complex skull phantoms. The results of both exercises resulted in the conclusion that none of the three available head phantoms is appropriate as a reference phantom for the calibration of germanium detection systems for measuring Am in exposed adult persons. The main reasons for this are: (1) lack of homogeneous activity distribution in the bone material, or (2) inadequate shape/size for simulating an adult skull. Good agreement was found between Monte Carlo results and measurements, which supports Monte Carlo calibration of body counters as an alternative method when appropriate physical phantoms are not available and the detector and source are well known.
- Factorial models to estimate isoleucine requirements for broilers. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2019 Apr 25
- The objective of this work was to determine the efficiency of utilization (EU) and produce factorial models for optimal isoleucine (Ile) intake. Six dose-response trials were carried out, three for m…
The objective of this work was to determine the efficiency of utilization (EU) and produce factorial models for optimal isoleucine (Ile) intake. Six dose-response trials were carried out, three for males and three for females, with 640 Ross 308 in each studied phase. The initial (1-14 days), grower (15-28 days) and finisher (29-42 days) phases were evaluated to cover the growing phase of the broiler chicken. In total, eight treatments were randomly distributed to four replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments consisted of seven crescent levels of Ile and one counter proof to ensure that Ile was the first limiting amino acid in the diet. Dilution technique was applied to produce the levels of Ile and keep the amino acid ratio with lysine. The EU was determined to account for whole body or partitioned for feather-free body (Bff) and feather. Two distinct factorial models were adjusted, M1 and M2. The M2 model was evaluated for one or two EU, being denominated as M2 and M3. When the efficiency was partitioned, the values of 53% and 69% for feather and Bff were determined. The optimal Ile intake estimated for each model were of 275, 908, 1,412 mg of Ile/bird/day (M1); 258, 829, 1,321 mg of Ile/bird/day (M2); and 284, 835, 1,288 mg of Ile/bird/day (M3) for initial, grower and finisher phases respectively. The EU partitioned for feather-free body and feather reduced the biased of the model M3. Overall, higher values of Ile intake are estimated when model M1 is used, which may be the difference in account for body weight gain (M1) or only protein gain (M2 and M3) to estimate the amount of amino acid required for broiler.
- Alterations of Hematologic and Hematopoietic Parameters in Mice Exposed to Pulsed Electromagnetic Field. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunol Res 2019; 2019:3628956
- Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on hematology and hematopoiesis might vary with different PEMF parameters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of PEMF exposu…
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on hematology and hematopoiesis might vary with different PEMF parameters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of PEMF exposure at different pulses on hematologic and hematopoietic parameters in mice. Groups of male BALB/c mice were whole body exposed or were sham exposed (control) to PEMF at 100, 1000, and 10000 pulses. After PEMF exposure, blood samples and bone marrow cells of mice were collected for hematologic examinations, bone marrow nucleated cell counting, colony-forming units of granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) colony assay, and serum granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) assay. Compared with the control group, white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes (LYM) in the 100 and 1000 pulses exposed groups were significantly increased but not changed in the 10000 pulses exposed group. Red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and platelets (PLT) were not changed in all exposed groups. There was no significant difference in mouse bone marrow nucleated cell number between the control group and each exposed group 7 days after PEMF exposure. The CFU-GM clone number of bone marrow cells and serum GM-CSF level were significantly increased in the 100 and 1000 pulses exposed group but not changed in the 10000 pulses exposed group. Our results indicated that the PEMF exposure at fewer pulses may induce statistically significant alterations in some hematologic and hematopoietic parameters of mice but no changes can be found in the more pulses PEMF-exposed groups.
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- Estimation of protein requirements in Indian pregnant women using a whole-body potassium counter. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 01; 109(4):1064-1070
- CONCLUSIONS: The additional protein requirements of well-nourished Indian pregnant women for a GWG of 12 kg in the second and third trimesters were similar to the recalculated 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU requirements for 12 kg.