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2,202 results
  • Parenting - a paradigm for investigating the neural circuit basis of behavior. [Review]
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019; 60:84-91Kohl J
  • Parenting is essential for survival and wellbeing in many species. Since it can be performed with little prior experience and entails considerable sacrifices without immediate benefits for the caregiver, this behavior is likely orchestrated by evolutionarily shaped, hard-wired neural circuits. At the same time, experience, environmental factors and internal state also make parenting highly mallea…
  • An Evolutionary Perspective on Sedentary Behavior. [Journal Article]
    Bioessays 2019; :e1900156Speakman JR
  • Most people are aware of the health benefits of being physically active. The question arises then why people so easily fall into sedentary habits. The idea developed here is that sedentary behavior is part of a suite of behaviors to reduce levels of physical activity that were strongly selected in the evolutionary past, likely because high levels of physical activity had direct negative consequen…
  • Neural constraints on human number concepts. [Review]
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019; 60:28-36Nieder A
  • True counting and arithmetic abilities are unique to humans and are inextricably linked to symbolic competence. However, our unprecedented numerical skills are deeply rooted in our neuronal heritage as primates and vertebrates. In this article, I argue that numerical competence in humans is the result of three neural constraints. First, I propose that the neuronal mechanisms of quantity estimatio…
  • Fear: It's All in Your Line of Sight. [Journal Article]
    Curr Biol 2019; 29(23):R1232-R1234Yilmaz M, Huberman AD
  • The brain circuits that create our sense of fear rely on ancient 'hard-wired' components of the limbic system, but also use sensory processing to determine what we become afraid of. A new study shows that, when viewing of simple oriented line stimuli is coupled with aversive experiences, neurons in primary visual cortex rapidly alter their responses in a manner that indicates the line stimuli bec…
  • Motivation in the Service of Allostasis: The Role of anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex. [Journal Article]
    Adv Motiv Sci 2019; 6:1-25Touroutoglou A, Andreano JM, … Barrett LF
  • In this article, we suggest that motivation serves to anticipate the energy of the body and meet those needs before they arise, called allostasis. We describe motivation as the output of energy computations that include estimates about future energy/metabolic needs and the value of effort required for potential behaviors (i.e., whether the cost of effort is worthwhile). We bring neuroscience evid…
  • Evidence that tolerance of Eutrema salsugineum to low phosphate conditions is hard-wired by constitutive metabolic and root-associated adaptations. [Journal Article]
    Planta 2019; 251(1):18Velasco VME, Irani S, … Weretilnyk EA
  • CONCLUSIONS: The extremophyte Eutrema salsugineum (Yukon ecotype) has adapted to an environment low in available phosphate through metabolic and root-associated traits that enables it to efficiently retrieve, use, and recycle phosphorus. Efficient phosphate (Pi) use by plants would increase crop productivity under Pi-limiting conditions and reduce our reliance on Pi applied as fertilizer. An ecotype of Eutrema salsugineum originating from the Yukon, Canada, shows no evidence of decreased relative growth rate or biomass under low Pi conditions and, as such, offers a promising model for identifying mechanisms to improve Pi use by crops. We evaluated traits associated with efficient Pi use by Eutrema (Yukon ecotype) seedlings and 4-week-old plants, including acquisition, remobilization, and the operation of metabolic bypasses. Relative to Arabidopsis, Eutrema was slower to remobilize phosphorus (P) from senescing leaves, primary and lateral roots showed a lower capacity for rhizosphere acidification, and root acid phosphatase activity was more broadly distributed and not Pi responsive. Both species produced long root hairs on low Pi media, whereas Arabidopsis root hairs were well endowed with phosphatase activity. This capacity was largely absent in Eutrema. In contrast to Arabidopsis, maximal in vitro rates of pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities were not responsive to low Pi conditions suggesting that Eutrema has a constitutive and likely preferential capacity to use glycolytic bypass enzymes. Rhizosphere acidification, exudation of acid phosphatases, and rapid remobilization of leaf P are unlikely strategies used by Eutrema for coping with low Pi. Rather, equipping an entire root system for Pi acquisition and utilizing a metabolic strategy suited to deficient Pi conditions offer better explanations for how Eutrema has adapted to thrive on alkaline, highly saline soil that is naturally low in available Pi.
  • B cells rapidly target antigen and surface-derived MHCII into peripheral degradative compartments. [Journal Article]
    J Cell Sci 2019Hernández-Pérez S, Vainio M, … Mattila PK
  • In order to mount high-affinity antibody responses, B cells internalise specific antigens and process them into peptides loaded onto MHCII for presentation to TH cells. While the biochemical principles of antigen processing and MHCII loading have been well dissected, how the endosomal vesicle system is wired to enable these specific functions remains much less studied. Here, we performed a system…
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