- The effects of repeated lineups and delay on eyewitness identification. [Journal Article]
- CRCogn Res Princ Implic 2019 Jun 13; 4(1):1
- A significant problem in eyewitness identification occurs when witnesses view a suspect in one venue such as a mugshot and then later in a lineup where the suspect is the only previously viewed perso…
A significant problem in eyewitness identification occurs when witnesses view a suspect in one venue such as a mugshot and then later in a lineup where the suspect is the only previously viewed person. Prior research has documented that the witness may select the suspect from the lineup due either to misplaced familiarity from seeing the mugshot or to their prior commitment from identifying the suspect from the mugshot. Two experiments attempted to minimize these biases by using repeated identical lineups, such that both targets and fillers were repeated, to determine if such a procedure could be useful. Across two experiments, we also varied the delay between seeing the event and the first lineup, as well as the delay between lineups. Despite the use of identical lineups, we continued to observe the effects of commitment and misplaced familiarity, so our procedure did not remove these problems. In addition, we also found that both repeated lineups and increasing delays can influence people's tendency to choose and their willingness to maintain their decisions, regardless of accuracy. Most importantly, however, despite the negative effects of repeated lineups and the relatively long delays used in our experiments, we obtained strong relations between confidence and accuracy when using confidence-accuracy characteristic plots. High confidence responses were associated with high accuracy.
- Do Couple-Focused Cessation Messages Increase Motivation to Quit Among Dual-Smoker Couples? [Journal Article]
- JSJ Smok Cessat 2019; 14(2):95-103
- CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in dual-smoker couples typically report low motivation to quit smoking. Couple-focused messages may increase motivation to quit among individuals who are not receiving negative support from their partners.
- Breast Cancer Survivors' Perceptions of Prevention versus Control of Future Cancer Recurrence. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Breast Cancer 2019; 2019:2652180
- CONCLUSIONS: Women's perceptions about the prevention and control of cancer recurrence are important and different factors in the minds of women with breast cancer. Most women believed they could control cancer recurrence; however, few believed they could prevent cancer recurrence. Interventions to focus on control of cancer recurrence, focusing on evidence-based clinical and lifestyle interventions, are needed.
- A Theology of Neediness and Evangelism. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Christ Nurs 2019 Jul/Sep; 36(3):178-179
- Twentieth century theologian Karl Barth viewed human beings as more needy than any other part of creation. Human neediness leads one into relationship with God or into independence, away from God. Ba…
Twentieth century theologian Karl Barth viewed human beings as more needy than any other part of creation. Human neediness leads one into relationship with God or into independence, away from God. Barth understood evangelism as speaking out of one's own deeply felt neediness to another also in need, attesting to what one has come to know of God in his/her own life. His perspective is helpful to nurses wanting to bear witness of God's work in their lives.
- CE: Original Research: Helping Health Care Providers and Staff Process Grief Through a Hospital-Based Program. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Nurs 2019 Jun 07
- CONCLUSIONS: The sustainability of the Healing Loss initiative during the four years of the study, together with strong feedback from participants, indicates that bereavement support for hospital employees is both feasible and beneficial.
- Perceptions of medical students towards autopsy teaching and its significance. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Law 2019 Jun 09; :25802419855448
- The importance of autopsies in medical education is multidimensional. In accordance with the existing medical curriculum in India, forensic medicine is a subject taken up during the second year of th…
The importance of autopsies in medical education is multidimensional. In accordance with the existing medical curriculum in India, forensic medicine is a subject taken up during the second year of the MBBS, and undergraduate students of medicine are expected to witness a minimum of 10 autopsies during the third to fifth semesters. This research analyses the perceptions of medical students towards medico-legal autopsy teaching and its significance at one medical institution in India. A total of 450 MBBS students participated in the study and submitted their responses to the predesigned semi-structured 20-point questionnaire on autopsy viewing and its relevance in general. The obtained data were analysed statistically using SPSS software. More than 75% of students agreed that they could appreciate the actual morphology and pathological changes in the human organs. There was a positive response from 54.9% students, who affirmed that autopsy helped refresh and improve their knowledge of human anatomy. More than 60% students agreed to have gained understanding of clinical-pathological correlations and became acquainted with death certification. The majority of the students (53.6%) agreed that autopsy postings made them mentally and emotionally stronger. The present study provides useful evidence regarding the perceptions of medical students towards autopsy teaching, and intends to highlight the utility of autopsies in enhancing the knowledge of medical students and its significance in the medical education curriculum.
- Prevalence of using pod-based vaping devices by brand among youth and young adults. [Journal Article]
- TCTob Control 2019 Jun 07
- Machine Learning Nonlocal Correlations. [Journal Article]
- PRPhys Rev Lett 2019 May 24; 122(20):200401
- The ability to witness nonlocal correlations lies at the core of foundational aspects of quantum mechanics and its application in the processing of information. Commonly, this is achieved via the vio…
The ability to witness nonlocal correlations lies at the core of foundational aspects of quantum mechanics and its application in the processing of information. Commonly, this is achieved via the violation of Bell inequalities. Unfortunately, however, their systematic derivation quickly becomes unfeasible as the scenario of interest grows in complexity. To cope with that, here, we propose a machine learning approach for the detection and quantification of nonlocality. It consists of an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons blended with genetic algorithms achieving a high performance in a number of relevant Bell scenarios. As we show, not only can the machine learn to quantify nonlocality, but discover new kinds of nonlocal correlations inaccessible with other current methods as well. We also apply our framework to distinguish between classical, quantum, and even postquantum correlations. Our results offer a novel method and a proof-of-principle for the relevance of machine learning for understanding nonlocality.
- The Future of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography: Advanced Analytics and Clinical Insights. [Review]
- JCJACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2019; 12(6):1058-1072
- Cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) has undergone rapid maturation over the last decade and is now of proven clinical utility in the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease, in guidi…
Cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) has undergone rapid maturation over the last decade and is now of proven clinical utility in the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease, in guiding structural heart disease intervention, and in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. The next decade will undoubtedly witness further advances in hardware and advanced analytics that will potentially see an increasingly core role for CCT at the center of clinical cardiovascular practice. In coronary artery disease assessment this may be via improved hemodynamic adjudication, and shear stress analysis using computational flow dynamics, more accurate and robust plaque characterization with spectral or photon-counting CT, or advanced quantification of CT data via artificial intelligence, machine learning, and radiomics. In structural heart disease, CCT is already pivotal to procedural planning with adjudication of gradients before and following intervention, whereas in congenital heart disease CCT is already used to support clinical decision making from neonates to adults, often with minimal radiation dose. In both these areas the role of computational flow dynamics, advanced tissue printing, and image modelling has the potential to revolutionize the way these complex conditions are managed, and CCT is likely to become an increasingly critical enabler across the whole advancing field of cardiovascular medicine.
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- Should measles vaccination be compulsory? [Journal Article]
- BMJBMJ 2019 Jun 05; 365:l2359