- Integration of diagnosis and treatment in the detection and kill of S.aureus in the whole blood. [Journal Article]
- BBBiosens Bioelectron 2019 Jul 13; 142:111507
- Fast and accurate detection of S. aureus and effectively kill S. aureus in the bloodstream in low doses acted as key roles in medicine and microbiology studies. In this work, sufonated-hyaluronic aci…
Fast and accurate detection of S. aureus and effectively kill S. aureus in the bloodstream in low doses acted as key roles in medicine and microbiology studies. In this work, sufonated-hyaluronic acid (S-HA) terminated magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNs) loaded with vancomycin was successfully prepared, and S. aureus antibody was further modified on the surface of MMSNs (Ab@S-HA@MMSNs) by amidation reaction. The result showed that Ab@S-HA@MMSNs were 240 nm-sized spheres with worm-like mesoporous channels. With the aid of magnetic interaction, Ab@S-HA@MMSNs were modified on the surface of magnetic glassy carbon electrode (MGCE). This prepared immunosensor exhibited an excellent detection limit and linear range, and possessed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility. Besides, since the S-HA terminated MMSNs have anticoagulant property, the Ab@S-HA@MMSNs/MGCE showed antiadhesion property, which ensure that it can be directly applied to detect the amount of S. aureus in whole blood. What's more, with an increasing amount of S. aureus arriving at MGCE, the capping Ab@S-HA@MMSNs were degraded by Hyal which was secreted by S. aureus, and the packaged vancomycin was subsequently released. Ultimately, S. aureus can be effectively killed. Therefore, this integrated platform would be a promising multifunctional platform for achieving accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment of S. aureus bloodstream infection.
- Correlations Between LC-MS/MS-Detected Glycomics and NMR-Detected Metabolomics in Caenorhabditis elegans Development. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Mol Biosci 2019; 6:49
- This study examined the relationship between glycans, metabolites, and development in C. elegans. Samples of N2 animals were synchronized and grown to five different time points ranging from L1 to a …
This study examined the relationship between glycans, metabolites, and development in C. elegans. Samples of N2 animals were synchronized and grown to five different time points ranging from L1 to a mixed population of adults, gravid adults, and offspring. Each time point was replicated seven times. The samples were each assayed by a large particle flow cytometer (Biosorter) for size distribution data, LC-MS/MS for targeted N- and O-linked glycans, and NMR for metabolites. The same samples were utilized for all measurements, which allowed for statistical correlations between the data. A new protocol was developed to correlate Biosorter developmental data with LC-MS/MS data to obtain stage-specific information of glycans. From the five time points, four distinct sizes of worms were observed from the Biosorter distributions, ranging from the smallest corresponding to L1 to adult animals. A network model was constructed using the four binned sizes of worms as starting nodes and adding glycans and metabolites that had correlations with r ≥ 0.5 to those nodes. The emerging structure of the network showed distinct patterns of N- and O-linked glycans that were consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, some metabolites that were correlated to these glycans and worm sizes showed interesting interactions. Of note, UDP-GlcNAc had strong positive correlations with many O-glycans that were expressed in the largest animals. Similarly, phosphorylcholine correlated with many N-glycans that were expressed in L1 animals.
- Microbiome and Cognitive Impairment: Can Any Diets Influence Learning Processes in a Positive Way? [Review]
- FAFront Aging Neurosci 2019; 11:170
- The aim of this review is to summarize the effect of human intestinal microbiome on cognitive impairments and to focus primarily on the impact of diet and eating habits on learning processes. Better …
The aim of this review is to summarize the effect of human intestinal microbiome on cognitive impairments and to focus primarily on the impact of diet and eating habits on learning processes. Better understanding of the microbiome could revolutionize the possibilities of therapy for many diseases. The authors performed a literature review of available studies on the research topic describing the influence of human microbiome and diet on cognitive impairment or learning processes found in the world's acknowledged databases Web of Science, PubMed, Springer, and Scopus. The digestive tube is populated by billions of living microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and microscopic fungi. In adulthood, under physiological conditions, the intestinal microbiome appears to be relatively steady. However, it is not true that it would not be influenced, both in the positive sense of the word and in the negative one. The basic pillars that maintain a steady microbiome are genetics, lifestyle, diet and eating habits, geography, and age. It is reported that the gastrointestinal tract and the brain communicate with each other through several pathways and one can speak about gut-brain axis. New evidence is published every year about the association of intestinal dysbiosis and neurological/psychiatric diseases. On the other hand, specific diets and eating habits can have a positive effect on a balanced microbiota composition and thus contribute to the enhancement of cognitive functions, which are important for any learning process.
- A Universal Strategy for Stretchable Polymer Nonvolatile Memory via Tailoring Nanostructured Surfaces. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 17; 9(1):10337
- Building stretchable memory is an effective strategy for developing next-generation memory technologies toward stretchable and wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a universal strategy for the f…
Building stretchable memory is an effective strategy for developing next-generation memory technologies toward stretchable and wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a universal strategy for the fabrication of high performance stretchable polymer memory via tailoring surface morphology, in which common conjugated polymers and sharp reduced graphene oxide (r-rGO) films are used as active memristive layers and conductive electrodes, respectively. The fabricated devices feature write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory, with a low switching voltage of 1.1 V, high ON/OFF current ratio of 104, and an ideal long retention time over 12000 s. Sharp surface-induced resistive switching behavior has been proposed to explore the electrical transition. Moreover, the polymer memory show reliable electrical bistable properties with a stretchability up to 30%, demonstrating their great potential candidates as high performance stretchable memory in soft electronics.
- What is community engagement and how can it drive malaria elimination? Case studies and stakeholder interviews. [Journal Article]
- MJMalar J 2019 Jul 17; 18(1):245
- CONCLUSIONS: Results overwhelmingly suggest that CE must be an iterative process that relies on early involvement, frequent feedback and active community participation to be successful. Empowering districts and communities in planning and executing community-based interventions is necessary. Communities affected by the disease will ultimately achieve malaria elimination. For this to happen, the community itself must define, believe in, and commit to strategies to interrupt transmission.
- Unveiling Temporal Nonlinear Structure-Rheology Relationships under Dynamic Shearing. [Journal Article]
- PPolymers (Basel) 2019 Jul 16; 11(7)
- Understanding how microscopic rearrangements manifest in macroscopic flow responses is one of the central goals of nonlinear rheological studies. Using the sequence-of-physical-processes framework, w…
Understanding how microscopic rearrangements manifest in macroscopic flow responses is one of the central goals of nonlinear rheological studies. Using the sequence-of-physical-processes framework, we present a natural 3D structure-rheology space that temporally correlates the structural and nonlinear viscoelastic parameters. Exploiting the rheo-small-angle neutron scattering (rheo-SANS) techniques, we demonstrate the use of the framework with a model system of polymer-like micelles (PLMs), where we unveil a sequence of microscopic events that micelles experience under dynamic shearing across a range of frequencies. The least-aligned state of the PLMs is observed to migrate from the total strain extreme toward zero strain with increasing frequency. Our proposed 3D space is generic, and can be equally applied to other soft materials under any sort of deformation, such as startup shear or uniaxial extension. This work therefore provides a natural approach for researchers to study complex out-of-equilibrium structure-rheology relationships of soft materials.
- Review of Dancing Parasites in Lymphatic Filariasis. [Review]
- UIUltrasound Int Open 2019; 5(2):E65-E74
- Lymphatic filariasis is an infection transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes with filarial nematodes of the species Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi und B. timori . It is prevalent in tropical cou…
Lymphatic filariasis is an infection transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes with filarial nematodes of the species Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi und B. timori . It is prevalent in tropical countries throughout the world, with more than 60 million people infected and more than 1 billion living in areas with the risk of transmission. Worm larvae with a length of less than 1 mm are transmitted by mosquitoes, develop in human lymphatic tissue to adult worms with a length of 7-10 cm, live in the human body for up to 10 years and produce millions of microfilariae, which can be transmitted further by mosquitoes. The adult worms can be easily observed by ultrasonography because of their size and fast movements (the so-called "filarial dance sign"), which can be differentiated from other movements (e. g., blood in venous vessels) by their characteristic movement profile in pulsed-wave Doppler mode. Therapeutic options include (combinations of) ivermectin, albendazole, diethylcarbamazine and doxycycline. The latter depletes endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria from the worms and thus sterilizes and later kills the adult worms (macrofilaricidal or adulticidal effect).
- Biosynthesis of the Nematode Attractant 2-Heptanone and Its Co-evolution Between the Pathogenic Bacterium Bacillus nematocida and Non-pathogenic Bacterium Bacillus subtilis. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2019; 10:1489
- Methylketones are broadly distributed in nature and perform a variety of functions. Most microorganisms are thought to produce methylketone by abortive β-oxidation of fatty acid catalytic metabolism.…
Methylketones are broadly distributed in nature and perform a variety of functions. Most microorganisms are thought to produce methylketone by abortive β-oxidation of fatty acid catalytic metabolism. However, two methylketone synthetase genes in wild tomatoes are reported to synthesize methylketone using intermediates of the fatty acids biosynthetic pathway. In our previous study on Trojan horse-like interactions between the bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 and its host worm, the chemical 2-heptanone was found to be an important attractant for the hosts. So here we used this model to investigate the genes involved in synthesizing 2-heptanone in microorganisms. We identified a novel methylketone synthase gene yneP in B. nematocida B16 and found enhancement of de novo fatty acid synthesis during 2-heptanone production. Interestingly, a homolog of yneP' existed in the non-pathogenic species Bacillus subtilis 168, a close relative of B. nematocida B16 that was unable to lure worms, but GC-MS assay showed no 2-heptanone production. However, overexpression of yneP' from B. subtilis in both heterologous and homologous systems demonstrated that it was not a pseudogene. The transcriptional analysis between those two genes had few differences under the same conditions. It was further shown that the failure to detect 2-heptanone in B. subtilis 168 was at least partly due to its conversion into 6-methyl-2-heptanone by methylation. Our study revealed methylketone biosynthesis of Bacillus species, and provided a co-evolution paradigm of second metabolites during the interactions between pathogenic/non-pathogenic bacteria and host.
- Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Children from a Rural Community Taking Part in a Periodic Deworming Program in the Peruvian Amazon. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jul 15
- Children in the Peruvian Amazon Basin are at risk of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of STH infection in children from a rural Amazonian comm…
Children in the Peruvian Amazon Basin are at risk of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of STH infection in children from a rural Amazonian community of Peru and to elucidate epidemiological risk factors associated with its perpetuation while on a school-based deworming program with mebendazole. Stool samples of children aged 2-14 years and their mothers were analyzed through direct smear analysis, Kato-Katz, spontaneous sedimentation in tube, Baermann's method, and agar plate culture. A questionnaire was administered to collect epidemiological information of interest. Among 124 children, 25.8% had one or more STH. Individual prevalence rates were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides, 16.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis, 10.5%; hookworm, 1.6%; and Trichuris trichiura, (1.6%). The prevalence of common STH (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm) was higher among children aged 2-5 years than older children (31.6% versus 12.8%; P = 0.01). In terms of sanitation deficits, walking barefoot was significantly associated with STH infection (OR = 3.28; CI 95% = 1.11-12.07). Furthermore, STH-infected children more frequently had a mother who was concomitantly infected by STH than the non-STH-infected counterpart (36.4% versus 14.1%, P = 0.02). In conclusion, STH infection is highly prevalent in children from this Amazonian community despite routine deworming. Institutional health policies may include hygiene and sanitation improvements and screening/deworming of mothers to limit the dissemination of STH. Further studies are needed to address the social and epidemiological mechanics perpetuating these infections.
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- Histopathological changes induced by the digenean intestinal parasite Masenia nkomatiensis Dumbo, Dos Santos, & Avenant-Oldewage, 2019 of the catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) from Incomati Basin, Mozambique. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Fish Dis 2019 Jul 15
- The intestines of 154 Clarias gariepinus were examined of which 29 were naturally infected with Masenia nkomatiensis, and of these, seven (intensity ranging from 8 to 231) were examined for pathology…
The intestines of 154 Clarias gariepinus were examined of which 29 were naturally infected with Masenia nkomatiensis, and of these, seven (intensity ranging from 8 to 231) were examined for pathology. Destruction of the epithelium covering the villi, detachment of epithelial cells and parts of villi were observed. Excessive mucus secretion occurred in the vicinity of the worm and catarrh was observed, indicative of an inflammatory response. The number of mucous and mast cells was higher at the attachment site than at an area 5,000 µm away and in uninfected individuals, suggesting that the parasite triggered a localized innate immune response. The number of neutrophils, basophils and lymphocytes in infected tissue was not significantly different from uninfected tissue confirming that no acquired immune response was produced against the maseniid. The caecae in the anterior part of the parasites' intestine consisted of convoluted epithelium forming invaginations or "crypts." Contraction of the thick layer of circular muscle fibres of the caeca facilitates the movement of digested material. Observation of digested host cells and cell debris within the caecae provides further evidence that M. nkomatiensis is consuming host cells.