- Rapid and reversible adsorption of BTX on mesoporous silica thin films for their real time spectrophotometric detection in air at ppm levels. [Journal Article]
- TTalanta 2019 Oct 01; 203:269-273
- Benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) are among the most toxic volatile organic compounds that can be emitted into the environment of different workplaces. Regulations to protect workers continue to str…
Benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) are among the most toxic volatile organic compounds that can be emitted into the environment of different workplaces. Regulations to protect workers continue to strengthen permissible exposure limit (PEL), and short-term exposure limit (STEL) for any 15-min period are defined for BTX that should be controlled with rapid, selective and sensitive on-site sensors. For that purpose, a real-time analysis of BTX is described here, using the UV spectrometric determination of instantaneously concentrated pollutants in a thin film of mesoporous and transparent silica deposited onto quartz plates. A new optical cell has been designed to achieve the lowest detection limits, up to the ppm level in air for benzene, toluene and p-xylene. The sensor was equipped with an air dryer to detect BTX in the presence of humidity and major interfering volatile organic compounds (acetone, ethanol, butanone and cyclohexane). The sensor has detection limits below defined PEL and STEL for benzene, toluene and xylenes. The adsorption properties of BTX on the sensor surface were quantitatively analyzed using the Freundlich equation, showing the singular behavior of benzene adsorption on the surface of silica relative to toluene and p-xylene.
- Ordered macro/micro-porous metal-organic framework of type ZIF-8 in a steel fiber as a sorbent for solid-phase microextraction of BTEX. [Journal Article]
- MAMikrochim Acta 2019 Jun 11; 186(7):425
- An ordered array of macropores on microporous metal-organic framework crystals was developed. This array facilitates analyte diffusion in microextraction applications. A prototypical zeolitic imidazo…
An ordered array of macropores on microporous metal-organic framework crystals was developed. This array facilitates analyte diffusion in microextraction applications. A prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) was synthesized in the interstitial voids of a polystyrene bead packing of sub-μm polystyrene beads. After removal of polystyrene by dimethylformamide, a single-crystal ordered macroporous ZIF-8 material (SOM-ZIF-8) was obtained. The resulting μm-sized SOM-ZIF-8 crystals are based on a fully-microporous structure containing a macroporous network. The SOM-ZIF-8 crystals were placed in a stainless-steel fiber and applied as a sorbent for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The fiber was applied to the HS-SPME of BTEX from wastewater samples followed by GC with flame ionization detection. A Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design were carried out to evaluate the variables affecting the method. Figures of merit include (a) limits of detection of 1.0-12 ng·L-1, (b) linear ranges of 0.004-50 μg·L-1, (c) relative standard deviations of 4.6-6.7%, and (d) excellent fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (5.6-6.7% for n = 3). Spiking recoveries between 92 and 106% were obtained for BTEX analysis in wastewater samples. The introduction of an ordered macroporous network on microporous ZIF-8 crystals enhanced analyte uptake. This increases the extraction performance by a factor of 2.5-3.1 when compared to analogous ZIF-8 crystals that lack templated macropores. Graphical abstract BTEX extraction is enhanced by templating an ordered macroporous network in microporous crystals as exemplified with the single-crystal ordered macropore zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (SOM-ZIF-8). Graphical Abstract contains poor quality of image inside the artwork. Please do not re-use the file that we have rejected or attempt to increase its resolution and re-save. It is originally poor, therefore, increasing the resolution will not solve the quality problem. We suggest that you provide us the original format. We prefer replacement figures containing vector/editable objects rather than embedded images. Preferred file formats are eps, ai, tiff and pdf.The file in original format has been attached.
- Combined effects of textural and surface properties of modified ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) on BTEX adsorption. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hazard Mater 2019 May 29; 377:381-390
- In this study, we first investigated the effects of textural parameters and surface properties of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) for the adsorptive removal of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xyl…
In this study, we first investigated the effects of textural parameters and surface properties of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) for the adsorptive removal of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) from aqueous solutions. The BET surface area, pore volume, and surface functional groups of OMC played a crucial role in affecting the adsorption performance of BTEX. Boric acid was used to increase the pore size and BET surface area of OMC from 5.94 nm to 6.74 nm and from 1276 m2/g to 1428 m2/g, respectively. Citric acid was used to introduce more oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of OMC achieving an overall increase of 11.4% of the oxygen content. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity for OMC and modified towards BTEX and the results showed that modified OMC exhibited a significant improvement for BTEX removal in the following order: Xylenes > Ethylbenzene > Toluene > Benzene. The BTEX adsorption capacities were improved from 8% to 15% with the addition of boric acid compared to the virgin. Surface functionalized using citric acid exhibited the total adsorption capacity of 142 mg/g with an increment of 40.5% compared to virgin OMC.
- Emissions from a flex fuel GDI vehicle operating on ethanol fuels show marked contrasts in chemical, physical and toxicological characteristics as a function of ethanol content. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 May 23; 683:749-761
- This study assessed the gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) from a flex fuel vehicle equipped with a wall-guided gasoline direct inje…
This study assessed the gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) from a flex fuel vehicle equipped with a wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine over triplicates cold-start and hot-start LA92 cycles. The vehicle was operated on a Tier 3 E10 fuel, an E10 fuel with higher levels of aromatics than the Tier 3 E10, an E30, and an E78 blend. Total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate emissions, and gaseous toxics (of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and 1,3-butadiene) reduced for E30 and E78 blends compared to both E10 fuels. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions substantially increased with the higher ethanol blends. The high aromatic E10 fuel increased the emissions of THC, NMHC, particulates, and BTEX compared to the Tier 3 E10 fuel and the higher ethanol blends, as well as showed higher concentrations of accumulation mode particles. The GDI PM did not exhibit any measurable mutagenicity at the PM concentrations tested. Cytotoxicity varied only within a small range and concentrations of PM, eliciting a cytotoxic response similar to those by ambient aerosol. The outcomes of our two measures of PM oxidative potential (macrophage ROS and DTT) were significantly correlated, with the E78 blend exhibiting the least oxidative potential and the E30 the greatest. Gene expression analysis at both the mRNA and protein level indicates that there is the potential for GDI PM emissions to contribute to inflammation and etiology of disease such as asthma, and in contrast to the ROS and DTT outcomes, the E78 fuel PM exhibited the greatest potential to elicit pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα) production. Overall, the trends in toxicity emission rates (activity/mi) across the ethanol blends was driven primarily by PM mass emission rate contrasts and only secondarily by the differences in intrinsic toxicity of the PM.
- Recovery and reactivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected on selected sorbent tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2019 May 16
- This article describes the optimization of methodology for extending the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to increasingly heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with a detail…
This article describes the optimization of methodology for extending the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to increasingly heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with a detailed focus on recent sorbent tube technology. Although PAHs have lower volatility than compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, these semi-volatile compounds can be detected in air and breath samples. For this work, PAHs were captured on sorbent tubes and subsequently analyzed using automated thermal desorption gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS). While many different sorbent tubes are commercially available, optimization for airborne PAH sampling using sorbent tubes has not been previously considered. Herein, several commercially available sorbent tubes, including Carbograph 2 TD/1TD, Tenax TA, XRO-440, and inert-coated PAH tubes are compared to determine the relative recovery for eight PAHs commonly found in the environment. Certain types of sorbent materials were found to be better suited for PAH recovery during thermal desorption, and PAH reaction products were observed on several types of sorbent tubes, including graphitized carbon black sorbents with stainless steel tube materials. As such, selection of sorbent tube media should be carefully considered prior to embarking on a PAH study.
- Quantitative Detection of Complex Mixtures using a Single Chemical Sensor: Analysis of Response Transients using Multi-Stage Estimation. [Journal Article]
- ASACS Sens 2019 May 22
- Most chemical sensors are only partially selective to any specific target analyte(s), making identification and quantification of analyte mixtures challenging, a problem often addressed using arrays …
Most chemical sensors are only partially selective to any specific target analyte(s), making identification and quantification of analyte mixtures challenging, a problem often addressed using arrays of partially selective sensors. This work presents and experimentally verifies a signal-processing technique based on estimation theory for online identification and quantification of multiple analytes using only the response data collected from a single polymer-coated sensor device. The demonstrated technique, based on multiple stages of exponentially-weighted recursive least-squares estimation (EW-RLSE), first determines which of the analytes included in the sensor response model are absent from the mixture being analyzed; these are then eliminated from the model prior to executing the final stage of EW-RLSE, in which the sample's constituent analytes are more accurately quantified. The overall method is based on a sensor response model with specific parameters describing each coating-analyte pair and requires no initial assumptions regarding the concentrations of the analytes in a given sample. The technique was tested using the measured responses of polymer-coated shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave devices to multi-analyte mixtures of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene in water. The results demonstrate how this method accurately identifies and quantifies the analytes present in a sample using the measured response of just a single sensor device. This effective, simple, lower-cost alternative to sensor arrays needs no arduous training protocol, just measurement of the response characteristics of each individual target analyte and the likely interferents and/or classes thereof.
- Blood BTEX levels and neurologic symptoms in Gulf states residents. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2019; 175:100-107
- CONCLUSIONS: Increasing blood benzene concentration was associated with increased prevalence of CNS symptoms. In this sample, BTEX-associated neurologic effects are likely driven by exposure to benzene and, to a lesser extent, toluene.
- Impacts of six potential HONO sources on HOx budgets and SOA formation during a wintertime heavy haze period in the North China Plain. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Sep 01; 681:110-123
- The Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model updated with six potential HONO sources (i.e., traffic, soil, biomass burning and indoor emissions, and heterogeneous reactions on aero…
The Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model updated with six potential HONO sources (i.e., traffic, soil, biomass burning and indoor emissions, and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol and ground surfaces) was used to quantify the impact of the six potential HONO sources on the production and loss rates of OH and HO2 radicals and the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Heibei (BTH) region of China during a winter heavy haze period of Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 2017. The updated WRF-Chem model well simulated the observed HONO concentrations at the Wangdu site, especially in the daytime, and well reproduced the observed diurnal variations of regional-mean O3 in the BTH region. The traffic emission source was an important HONO source during nighttime but not significant during daytime, heterogeneous reactions on ground/aerosol surfaces were important during nighttime and daytime. We found that the six potential HONO sources led to a significant enhancement in the dominant production and loss rates of HOx on the wintertime heavy haze and nonhaze days (particularly on the heavy haze day), an enhancement of 5-25 μg m-3 (75-200%) in the ground SOA in the studied heavy haze event, and an enhancement of 2-15 μg m-3 in the meridional-mean SOA on the heavy haze day, demonstrating that the six potential HONO sources accelerate the HOx cycles and aggravate haze events. HONO was the key precursor of primary OH in the BTH region in the studied wintertime period, and the photolysis of HONO produced a daytime mean OH production rate of 2.59 ppb h-1 on the heavy haze day, much higher than that of 0.58 ppb h-1 on the nonhaze day. Anthropogenic SOA dominated in the BTH region in the studied wintertime period, and its main precursors were xylenes (42%), BIGENE (31%) and toluene (21%).
- A comprehensive study on spatio-temporal distribution, health risk assessment and ozone formation potential of BTEX emissions in ambient air of Delhi, India. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Apr 01; 659:1090-1099
- The hazardous air pollutants like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) are considered as toxic because of their role in ozone formation and adverse effects on human health. Owing to this,…
The hazardous air pollutants like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) are considered as toxic because of their role in ozone formation and adverse effects on human health. Owing to this, the present study was carried out at six spatially distributed sites in Delhi from November 2017- June 2018. Activated charcoal tubes were used to collect samples of BTEX and were further analyzed using GC-FID. The minimum BTEX concentration was found at institutional site (9.94 μg/m3) and maximum at roadside site (103.12 μg/m3) with the average of 46.66 μg/m3. Also, the levels of BTEX were 1.18-1.74 times higher during rush hours as compared to non-rush hours. The high T/B ratio (2.26-3.41) observed is the indication of the traffic-originated sources of emission. The cancer risks calculated for benzene at probability 0.50 ranged as 1.29E-06 - 1.80E-05, whereas 4.09E-06 - 3.40E-05 at probability 0.95, which were higher than the acceptable value of 1.0E-06. The non-cancer health risks in terms of hazard index were observed less than unity i.e. within acceptable limit. The total ozone formation potential (OFP) was obtained as 207.51 ± 123.40 μg/m3 with maximum potential by toluene. Such high levels of BTEX, cancer risks and OFP obtained in the study especially at roadside and connectivity hub are harmful for people residing near these areas, and also to large commuters, who are exposed to such emissions during travelling.
New Search Next
- Association of long term exposure to outdoor volatile organic compounds (BTXS) with pro-inflammatory biomarkers and hematologic parameters in urban adults: A cross-sectional study in Tabriz, Iran. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Sep 30; 180:152-159
- This study aimed to compare the hematologic variables and pro-inflammatory biomarkers in urban adults living in Tabriz, Iran, facing various levels of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Of al…
This study aimed to compare the hematologic variables and pro-inflammatory biomarkers in urban adults living in Tabriz, Iran, facing various levels of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Of all 219 people (212 male and 7 female), 71 were from the low traffic area and 148 were from high traffic and industrial areas. To validate the exposure levels, 93 air samples were taken to determine the target VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene collectively called BTXS) concentrations in the studied areas. ANOVA and Tukey's tests were used for statistical analysis. Based on the results, significant differences were observed between the mean concentrations of BTXS with the following order of abundance: industrial > high traffic > low traffic. The Considerable decrease was observed in red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and eosinophils of 0.324 (× 106/μL), 0.57 g/dL, 1.87%, and 0.17 (× 103/μL), respectively in industrial area participants as compared to the low traffic area. However, a significant increase was observed in white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils number, neutrophils percent, TNF-α and INF-γ of 0.88 (× 103/μL), 0.80 (× 103/μL), 3.53%, 34.2 ng/mL, and 40.06 ng/mL, respectively in the same groups. The comparison of low and high traffic areas showed significant differences in RBC (p = 0.034), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (p < 0.001), and interferon gamma (INF-γ) (p < 0.001). On the contrary, no significant difference was observed in TNF-α and INF-γ among the high traffic and industrial areas. In conclusion, the results showed that the samples from high traffic and industrial areas were regularly exposed to higher values of BTXS due to traffic and industrial pollutants as compared to the samples residing in low traffic regions. Based on the results living in both high traffic and industrial regions can increase adverse effects on hematologic parameters and pro-inflammatory cytokines.