- Retinoschisis: A Predictive Factor in Vitrectomy for Lamellar Macular Holes in Highly Myopic Eyes. [Journal Article]
- OOphthalmologica 2019 Jul 17; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: PPV is an effective method to achieve a high anatomical success, improve postoperative vision, and prevent foveal thinning in highly myopic eyes with LMH. In these eyes, the presence of retinoschisis strongly indicates the need for vitrectomy.
- A Triad of Immune Cells Promotes Infection. [Journal Article]
- IImmunity 2019 Jul 16; 51(1):5-7
- The intracellular pathogen L. monocytogenes takes advantage of several myeloid cell populations to establish infection in the spleen. In this issue, Liu et al. (2019) reveal how marginal zone B cells…
The intracellular pathogen L. monocytogenes takes advantage of several myeloid cell populations to establish infection in the spleen. In this issue, Liu et al. (2019) reveal how marginal zone B cells, dendritic cells, and marginal metallophilic macrophages act together with IL-10 to promote L. monocytogenes infection, while simultaneously enabling adaptive CD8+ T cell responses.
- Geomicrobiology of the Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulfur Cycles in Powell Lake: A Permanently Stratified Water Column Containing Ancient Seawater. [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Microbiol 2019 Jul 17
- We present the first geomicrobiological characterization of the meromictic water column of Powell Lake (British Columbia, Canada), a former fjord which has been stably stratified since the last glaci…
We present the first geomicrobiological characterization of the meromictic water column of Powell Lake (British Columbia, Canada), a former fjord which has been stably stratified since the last glacial period. Its deepest layers (300-350 m) retain isolated, relict seawater from that period. Fine-scale vertical profiling of the water chemistry and microbial communities allowed subdivision of the water column into distinct geomicrobiological zones. These zones were further characterized by phylogenetic and functional marker genes from amplicon and shotgun metagenome sequencing. Binning of metagenomic reads allowed the linkage of function to specific taxonomic groups. Statistical analyses (ANOSIM, Bray-Curtis similarity) confirmed that the microbial community structure followed closely the geochemical zonation. Yet, our characterization of the genetic potential relevant to carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling of each zone revealed unexpected features, including potential for facultative anaerobic methylotrophy, nitrogen fixation despite high ammonium concentrations and potential micro-aerobic nitrifiers within the chemocline. At the oxic-suboxic interface, facultative anaerobic potential was found in the widespread freshwater lineage acI (Actinobacteria), suggesting intriguing ecophysiological similarities to the marine SAR11. Evolutionary divergent lineages among diverse phyla were identified in the ancient seawater zone and may indicate novel adaptations to this unusual environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Effects of altitude on chronotype orientations in relation to cardiorespiratory and hematological quantities of college students in Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219836
- CONCLUSIONS: Our finding, reported for the first time that, the human chronotype varies according to the altitude, with no underlying effect of cardiorespiratory and hematological quantities.
- Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Clinical description and relationship with microfilarial density. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jul 17; 13(7):e0007300
- CONCLUSIONS: In onchocerciasis-endemic regions in the DRC, a wide spectrum of seizures was observed. The occurrence of Nodding seizures and Nakalanga features, as well as an association between seizure severity and O. volvulus microfilarial density suggest a high OAE prevalence in the study villages.
- The Effect of Subinhibitory Concentrations of trans-Anethole on Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Mupirocin Against Mupirocin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains. [Journal Article]
- MDMicrob Drug Resist 2019 Jul 17
- Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of trans-anethole on antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of mup…
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of trans-anethole on antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of mupirocin against mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Methods: Following parameters were examined: isolates susceptibility to antibiotics, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of trans-anethole, antibacterial activity of mupirocin/trans-anethole combination, detection of ileS2 gene, genotypic relativity of isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method, and the influence of mupirocin/trans-anethole combination on S. aureus biofilm formation. Results: Our study revealed that trans-anethole combined with mupirocin increased the growth inhibition zone diameter around the mupirocin disk, independently on S. aureus strains susceptibility to this antibiotic. Moreover, combination of subinhibitory (MIC50) concentration of mupirocin and trans-anethole significantly decreased biofilm biomass. Conclusions: trans-Anethole appeared efficient in increasing susceptibility to mupirocin and decreasing biofilm formation in S. aureus strains used in this study. Reduction of biofilm formation can potentially protect against S. aureus recolonization. Moreover, use of trans-anethole in combination with mupirocin can increase the mupirocin activity against methicillin-resistant and mupirocin-resistant S. aureus strains.
- Visual performance and high order aberrations with different contact lens prototypes with potential for myopia control. [Journal Article]
- CECurr Eye Res 2019 Jul 17
- Purpose: Contact lenses used for myopia control incorporate variable power distribution across the optic zone potentially creating degradation of the high order aberrations. The present study aims to…
Purpose: Contact lenses used for myopia control incorporate variable power distribution across the optic zone potentially creating degradation of the high order aberrations. The present study aims to evaluate the retinal image quality and visual performance in three prototypes of contact lenses intended to control axial elongation of the eye before they are considered for clinical trials. Methods: This is a non-dispensing cross-over, double blind study where 30 right eyes of myopic subjects worn 3 multifocal test lenses and 1 monofocal control lens in random order. Lens 1 was a Radial Refractive Gradient design (center distance) and Lens 2 and 3 Center Near with an additional annular ring for near. Nominal Add power was 2.00 D, 1.50 D and 2.00 D respectively. Subjects had an age 21.96±2.23years [18 to 30] and mean spherical equivalent refraction M=-2.23±1.50D [-0.75 to -5.50] with refractive astigmatism below -0.75D. Higher order aberrations (HOA), glare formation (halo), high and low contrast LogMAR visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was measured under monocular conditions. Results: All individual terms of HOA and total RMS from 3rd to 8th order increased significantly with the 3 Test lenses compared to Control. Between test lenses, Lens 1 increased significantly the higher HOA compared with Lens 2 and 3. Halo size was significantly larger with test lenses compared with control, with Lens 1 showing the largest. Visual acuity under high contrast conditions was similar for all lenses. Under low contrast Lens 1 and Lens 2 performed significantly worse than Control (Bonferroni post-hoc correction, p<0.001). CSF was below normal limits with Lens 1 for 3 and 6 cpd spatial frequency but was not significantly different between Test lenses and Control. Conclusions: Lenses with larger stabilized areas for distance vision interfere less with visual acuity and induce lower values of higher order aberrations and image degradation.
- Latexin expression correlated with mineralization of articular cartilage during progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis in a rat model. [Journal Article]
- HHHistol Histopathol 2019 Jul 17; :18151
- As latexin has been linked with chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation it is possible that this protein may also be involved in the mineralization of cartilage in OA. Therefore, we correlated latex…
As latexin has been linked with chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation it is possible that this protein may also be involved in the mineralization of cartilage in OA. Therefore, we correlated latexin expression with the mineralization marker, alkaline phosphatase and determined the mineral deposition in the articular cartilage by analyzing the Ca/P ratio and the collagen fibrils pattern, during the progression of post-traumatic OA in a rat model. OA was induced by medial meniscectomy and post-surgery exercise for 5, 10, 20 and 45 days. Protein expression in articular cartilage was evaluated by immunofluorescence, histochemistry and Western blot. Minerals and structure of collagen fibrils in the superficial zone of cartilage were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. Protein expression analysis showed time-dependent up-regulation of latexin during OA progression. In the cartilage, latexin expression correlated with the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase. EDX of the superficial zone of cartilage showed a Ca/P ratio closer to theoretical values for basic calcium phosphate minerals. The presence of minerals was also analyzed indirectly with AFM, as the collagen fibril pattern was less evident in the mineralized tissue. Latexin is expressed in articular cartilage from the early stages of post-traumatic OA; however, minerals were detected after latexin expression was up-regulated, indicating that its activity precedes and remains during the pathological mineralization of cartilage. Thus, our results contribute to the identification of molecules involved in the mineralization of articular chondrocytes.
- Physiological responses and small RNAs changes in maize under nitrogen deficiency and resupply. [Journal Article]
- GGGenes Genomics 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study comprehensively provides important information on miRNA functions and molecular mechanisms in response to N stress. These findings may assist to improve nitrogen availability in plants.
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- A reignited debate over the cell(s) of origin for glioblastoma and its clinical implications. [Review]
- FMFront Med 2019 Jul 16
- Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary neoplasm in the central nervous system. Despite intensive treatment, the prognosis for patients with GBM remains poor, with a median survival …
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary neoplasm in the central nervous system. Despite intensive treatment, the prognosis for patients with GBM remains poor, with a median survival of 14-16 months. 90% of GBMs are primary GBMs that are full-blown at diagnosis without evidences of a pre-existing lessmalignant precursor lesion. Therefore, identification of the cell(s) of origin for GBM-the normal cell or cell type that acquires the initial GBM-promoting genetic hit(s)-is the key to the understanding of the disease etiology and the development of novel therapies. Neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells are the two major candidates for the cell(s) of origin for GBM. Latest data from human samples have reignited the longstanding debate over which cells are the clinically more relevant origin for GBMs. By critically analyzing evidences for or against the candidacy of each cell type, we highlight the most recent progress and debate in the field, explore the clinical implications, and propose future directions toward early diagnosis and preventive treatment of GBMs.