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145 results
  • Cope's Rule in a modular organism: Directional evolution without an overarching macroevolutionary trend. [Journal Article]
    Evolution 2019; 73(9):1863-1872Liow LH, Taylor PD
  • Cope's Rule describes increasing body size in evolutionary lineages through geological time. This pattern has been documented in unitary organisms but does it also apply to module size in colonial organisms? We address this question using 1169 cheilostome bryozoans ranging through the entire 150 million years of their evolutionary history. The temporal pattern evident in cheilostomes as a whole s…
  • Histone deacetylase activity is required for Botrylloides leachii whole-body regeneration. [Journal Article]
    J Exp Biol 2019; 222(Pt 15)Zondag L, M Clarke R, Wilson MJ
  • The colonial tunicate Botrylloides leachii is exceptional at regenerating from a piece of vascular tunic after loss of all adults from the colony. Previous transcriptome analyses indicate a brief period of healing before regeneration of a new adult (zooid) in as little as 8-10 days. However, there is little understanding of how the resulting changes to gene expression, required to drive regenerat…
  • Modularity is the mother of invention: a review of polymorphism in bryozoans. [Journal Article]
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2019; 94(3):773-809Schack CR, Gordon DP, Ryan KG
  • Modularity is a fundamental concept in biology. Most taxa within the colonial invertebrate phylum Bryozoa have achieved division of labour through the development of specialized modules (polymorphs), and this group is perhaps the most outstanding exemplar of the phenomenon. We provide a comprehensive description of the diversity, morphology and function of these polymorphs and the significance of…
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