- [Hypogeusia and High Signals in the Nuclei of the Solitary Tract on MRI due to Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection: A Case Report]. [Journal Article]
- BNBrain Nerve 2017; 69(2):173-177
- A 63-year-old man noticed hypogeusia after presenting hiccups for several days. He was serologically diagnosed with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, but had no skin lesions typical of herpes (...
A 63-year-old man noticed hypogeusia after presenting hiccups for several days. He was serologically diagnosed with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, but had no skin lesions typical of herpes (zoster sine herpete). Hypogeusia was confirmed by electrogustometry and the filter-paper disk method, which showed damage in the areas innervated by the cord of tympanum, glossopharyngeal nerve, and greater petrosal nerve. High signals in the nuclei of the solitary tract of the medulla oblongata and the enhancement of the bilateral intracranial segments of the cranial nerve IX and X complex were observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The signal changes in the nuclei of the solitary tract on MRI were seen for more than 2 months, and hypogeusia lasted for more than 7 months. Hypogeusia caused by VZV infection has rarely been reported; however, similar cases could have gone undiagnosed or underdiagnosed in patients with idiopathic hypogeusia. (Received August 18, 2016; Accepted September 29, 2016; Published February 1, 2017).
- [Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in the elderly: Particularities in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment]. [Journal Article]
- GMGac Med Mex 2017 Jan-Feb; 153(1):92-101
- Herpes zoster (HZ) results from the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus latent in the sensory ganglia when cell-mediated immunity is altered. It is a frequent condition in older adults, leadin...
Herpes zoster (HZ) results from the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus latent in the sensory ganglia when cell-mediated immunity is altered. It is a frequent condition in older adults, leading to undesirable adverse outcomes. Aging is its main risk factor and the elderly may have different clinical presentations: zoster sine herpete, and a higher incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia (15%) and ophthalmic herpes (7%). Both HZ and post-herpetic neuralgia may impact the quality of life, functional status, mental health, and social interaction in older adults. Clinical trials have demonstrated that the vaccine decreases the incidence of HZ and post-herpetic neuralgia by up to 51% and 67%, respectively. When treating older adults with multi-morbidity, practitioners should consider starting low-dose drugs so they can look for potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. The aim of this article was to review the particularities of the risk factors, clinical presentation, complications, and treatment of HZ and post-herpetic neuralgia.
- Lower cranial polyneuropathy in zoster sine herpete presenting with pain in the ear and throat: a case report. [Case Reports]
- RSRinsho Shinkeigaku 2016 Oct 28; 56(10):702-704
- A 64-year-old woman developed acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves on the left side after pain in the head and the left ear and throat. Cerebrospinal fluid ex...
A 64-year-old woman developed acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves on the left side after pain in the head and the left ear and throat. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein concentration. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-DNA was detected by PCR from cerebrospinal fluid. The diagnosis of lower cranial polyneuropathy due to VZV reactivation was made. After oral administration of an anti-viral agent and steroid, all symptoms and signs dramatically improved. Notably, there was no evidence of cutaneous or mucosal rash during the whole course of the disease. VZV reactivation should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute lower cranial polyneuropathy, especially with pain in the ear and throat, even without cutaneous or mucosal rash.
- Cerebrospinal fluid viral load and biomarkers of neuronal and glial cells in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Neurosci 2016; 44(11):2944-2949
- Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) can manifest with facial palsy diagnosed as Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS) or Ramsay Hunt Syndrome zoster sine herpete (RHS-ZSH). These syndromes are associat...
Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) can manifest with facial palsy diagnosed as Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS) or Ramsay Hunt Syndrome zoster sine herpete (RHS-ZSH). These syndromes are associated with poor prognosis despite treatment with antivirals and corticosteroids. Concentrations of biomarkers such as neurofilament protein (NFL), S-100β protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) have previously been measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to assess neuronal damage and glial pathology. We employed immunochemical methods to measure concentrations of NFL, S-100β protein and GFAp in CSF from patients with RHS (n = 15) and RHS-ZSH (n = 13) diagnosed by detection of VZV DNA in the CSF by quantitative PCR, and compared with a control group (n = 52). The biomarker concentrations were correlated with CSF viral load and outcome measured by House-Brackmann score. NFL and GFAp concentrations were increased compared with controls (P = 0.008 and P = 0.04), while S-100β levels were decreased. This pattern was more pronounced in patients with RHS compared to the patients with RHS-ZSH (NS and P = 0.028). The amount of viral DNA in CSF correlated with increased GFAp (P = 0.003) and NFL (P = 0.006). No correlations were found between biomarker concentrations and patient outcome. Patients with facial palsy caused by VZV had biochemical signs of neuronal damage and astrogliosis. High amounts of viral DNA may be associated with the degree of damage on neuronal and astroglial cells. Prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the association of elevated biomarkers in the CSF and outcome assessed by more sensitive tests.
- Issues in the Treatment of Neurological Conditions Caused by Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). [Review]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2016; 13(3):509-13
- Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous neurotropic human herpesvirus. Primary infection usually causes varicella (chicken pox), after which virus becomes latent in ganglia along the entire neur...
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous neurotropic human herpesvirus. Primary infection usually causes varicella (chicken pox), after which virus becomes latent in ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Decades later, virus reactivates to produce herpes zoster (shingles), a painful dermatomally distributed vesicular eruption. Zoster may be further complicated by postherpetic neuralgia, VZV vasculopathy, myelitis, and segmental motor weakness. VZV reactivation has also been associated with giant cell arteritis. This overview discusses treatment of various conditions that often require both corticosteroids and antiviral drugs. Treatment for VZV-associated disease is often based on case reports and small studies rather than large-scale clinical trials. Issues that require resolution include the optimal duration of such combined therapy, more effective treatment for postherpetic neuralgia, whether some treatments should be given orally or intravenously, the widening spectrum of zoster sine herpete, and the role of antiviral therapy in giant cell arteritis.
- [Successful treatment with acyclovir and a corticosteroid for lower cranial polyneuropathy in zoster sine herpete: a case report]. [Case Reports]
- RSRinsho Shinkeigaku 2015; 55(12):932-5
- A 62-year-old woman developed meningitis as well as acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves on the right side and also had dysfunction of the left hypoglossal nerve. Although...
A 62-year-old woman developed meningitis as well as acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves on the right side and also had dysfunction of the left hypoglossal nerve. Although there was no evidence of a typical cutaneous or mucosal herpetic lesion, PCR detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the clinical diagnosis of polyneuritis cranialis due to VZV infection and zoster sine herpete. After starting intravenous acyclovir and methylprednisolone, her hypoglossal nerve palsy disappeared within a day and all other symptoms and signs dramatically improved. A rapid improvement observed in our patient suggests that the right cranial polyneuropathy could be caused by inflammation associated with epineurial edema (where the ninth, tenth, and eleventh cranial nerves pass through the right jugular foramen), whereas the exact mechanism of the twelfth cranial nerve involvement on the contralateral side is unknown. Our clinical findings indicate that acute lower cranial polyneuropathy in patients with zoster sine herpete should be treated immediately with combined administration of acyclovir and an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid.
- Burning pain from chest to back · allodynia and hyperesthesia · extreme sensitivity at the left T5 dermatome · Dx? [Case Reports]
- JFJ Fam Pract 2015; 64(6):E1-2
- A 27-year-old woman in the 21st week of her first pregnancy came to our clinic complaining of a constant burning pain that spread around her left chest wall to her back. She graded the pain as a 10 o...
A 27-year-old woman in the 21st week of her first pregnancy came to our clinic complaining of a constant burning pain that spread around her left chest wall to her back. She graded the pain as a 10 on a 0 to 10 visual analog scale. The pain, which began 3 months earlier, became worse when she took a deep breath, ate, or walked, but was alleviated by applying warm compresses. Our patient hadn't slept well since the pain began. Her medical history was noteworthy for chickenpox at age 5.
- Use of Saliva to Identify Varicella Zoster Virus Infection of the Gut. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2015 Aug 15; 61(4):536-44
- CONCLUSIONS: Detection of salivary VZV DNA in patients with abdominal pain helps to identify putative enteric zoster for investigation and treatment.
- Atypical Presentation of a Common Disease: Shingles of the Larynx. [Case Reports]
- JVJ Voice 2015; 29(5):600-2
- CONCLUSIONS: Herpes zoster of the larynx is an uncommon condition that should be included in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis of idiopathic cause. We recommend performing a thorough examination of the pharyngolaryngeal structures and ordering PCR testing as the diagnostic method of choice.
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- Varicella zoster virus-associated anterior uveitis in a seronegative adult without a history of chickenpox. [Journal Article]
- COClin Ophthalmol 2015; 9:399-402
- CONCLUSIONS: VZV-associated uveitis may develop in an adult with undetectable serum anti-VZV antibodies. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous humor is the key investigation necessary for the diagnosis in such cases.