Acute adrenal insufficiency
Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease)
- Surgical removal or trauma
- Infection, e.g., tuberculosis, histoplasmosis
- Adrenal hemorrhage
- Metastatic cancer
- Hemochromatosis or amyloidosis
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Secondary adrenal insufficiency
- Pituitary failure (atrophy, necrosis, tumor)
- Exogenous steroids
- Other types of shock, e.g., septic, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, anaphylactic
- Hyperkalemia due to other causes, e.g., renal failure, rhabdomyolysis
- Hyponatremia due to other causes, e.g., SIADH, cirrhosis, vomiting
- Abdominal pain due to other causes
See related DDx
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Zeiger, Roni F.. "Acute Adrenal Insufficiency." Diagnosaurus, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2015. The Washington Manual, www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Diagnosaurus/114318/all/Acute_adrenal_insufficiency.
Zeiger RFR. Acute adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosaurus. McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Diagnosaurus/114318/all/Acute_adrenal_insufficiency. Accessed March 20, 2023.
Zeiger, R. F. (2015). Acute adrenal insufficiency. In Diagnosaurus (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Diagnosaurus/114318/all/Acute_adrenal_insufficiency
Zeiger RFR. Acute Adrenal Insufficiency [Internet]. In: Diagnosaurus. McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. [cited 2023 March 20]. Available from: https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Diagnosaurus/114318/all/Acute_adrenal_insufficiency.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
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