Principles of Stem Cell Transplantation

Principles of Stem Cell Transplantation is a topic covered in the Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics.

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Background

  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation involves the infusion of either allogeneic or autologous stem cells, which is typically preceded by conditioning chemotherapy and sometimes total-body irradiation to clear residual disease and immunosuppress the recipient. Depending on the extent of myelosuppression achieved as a result of this conditioning, the regimens are classified as myeloablative, reduced intensity, or nonmyeloablative.
  • Autologous transplantation involves collection, cryopreservation, and reinfusion of a patient’s own stem cells. This allows administration of myeloablative doses of chemotherapy with the intent of maximizing the efficacy of chemotherapy while rescuing hematopoiesis using stem cell re-infusion after chemotherapy.
  • Allogeneic transplantation refers to the infusion of stem cells collected from either HLA-matched or mismatched donors. In addition to facilitating the administration of high doses of chemotherapy, allogeneic transplantation also allows for an immunologic effect mediated by donor T and natural killer cells on the tumor (graft-versus-tumor effect).

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Background

  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation involves the infusion of either allogeneic or autologous stem cells, which is typically preceded by conditioning chemotherapy and sometimes total-body irradiation to clear residual disease and immunosuppress the recipient. Depending on the extent of myelosuppression achieved as a result of this conditioning, the regimens are classified as myeloablative, reduced intensity, or nonmyeloablative.
  • Autologous transplantation involves collection, cryopreservation, and reinfusion of a patient’s own stem cells. This allows administration of myeloablative doses of chemotherapy with the intent of maximizing the efficacy of chemotherapy while rescuing hematopoiesis using stem cell re-infusion after chemotherapy.
  • Allogeneic transplantation refers to the infusion of stem cells collected from either HLA-matched or mismatched donors. In addition to facilitating the administration of high doses of chemotherapy, allogeneic transplantation also allows for an immunologic effect mediated by donor T and natural killer cells on the tumor (graft-versus-tumor effect).

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