Hepatic Vein Thrombosis

General Principles

Hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT), also known as Budd–Chiari syndrome, causes hepatic venous outflow obstruction. It has multiple etiologies and a variety of clinical consequences.

  • Thrombosis is the main factor leading to obstruction of the hepatic venous system, frequently in association with myeloproliferative disorders (i.e., polycythemia vera), antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, factor V Leiden, protein C and S deficiency, Jak-2 mutation, and contraceptive use.
  • Membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and stenosis of the IVC anastomosis after liver transplantation are conditions that present clinically similar to HVT.
  • Some cases are idiopathic.

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