The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics helps you diagnose and treat hundreds of medical conditions. Consult clinical recommendations from a resource that has been trusted on the wards for 50+ years. Explore these free sample topics:
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- Asymptomatic gallstones (cholelithiasis) are a common incidental finding for which no specific therapy is generally necessary (J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010;25:719 [PMID:20492328]). Cholesterol stones are the most common type, but pigmented stones can be seen with hemolysis or infection. Risk factors include obesity, female gender, parity, rapid weight loss, ileal disease, and maternal family history.
- Symptomatic cholelithiasis, when upper abdominal symptoms are linked to gallstones, is typically treated surgically with cholecystectomy.
- Acute cholecystitis is caused most often by obstruction of the cystic duct by gallstones, but acalculous cholecystitis can occur in severely ill or hospitalized patients.