- Pneumothorax may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma.
- Primary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs without obvious underlying lung disease.
- Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax results from underlying parenchymal lung disease including COPD and emphysema, interstitial lung disease, necrotizing lung infections, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, tuberculosis, and cystic fibrosis.
- Traumatic pneumothorax occurs as a result of penetrating or blunt chest trauma.
- Iatrogenic pneumothorax occurs after thoracentesis, central line placement, transbronchial biopsy, transthoracic needle biopsy, or barotrauma from mechanical ventilation and resuscitation.
- Tension pneumothorax results from continued accumulation of air in the chest that is sufficient to shift mediastinal structures and impede venous return to the heart. This results in abnormal gas exchange, hypotension, and ultimately, cardiovascular collapse.
- The causes include barotrauma due to mechanical ventilation, a chest wound that allows ingress but not egress of air, or a defect in the visceral pleura that behaves in the same way (“ball valve” effect).
- Suspect tension pneumothorax when a patient experiences hypotension and respiratory distress on mechanical ventilation or after any procedure in which the thorax is violated.
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Bhat, Pavat, et al., editors. "Pneumothorax." Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics, 35th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health, 2016. The Washington Manual, www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602356/all/Pneumothorax.
Pneumothorax. In: Bhat PP, Dretler AA, Gdowski MM, et al, eds. Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2016. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602356/all/Pneumothorax. Accessed May 27, 2023.
Pneumothorax. (2016). In Bhat, P., Dretler, A., Gdowski, M., Ramgopal, R., & Williams, D. (Eds.), Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics (35th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602356/all/Pneumothorax
Pneumothorax [Internet]. In: Bhat PP, Dretler AA, Gdowski MM, Ramgopal RR, Williams DD, editors. Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2016. [cited 2023 May 27]. Available from: https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602356/all/Pneumothorax.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Pneumothorax ID - 602356 ED - Williams,Dominique, ED - Bhat,Pavat, ED - Dretler,Alexandra, ED - Gdowski,Mark, ED - Ramgopal,Rajeev, BT - Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602356/all/Pneumothorax PB - Wolters Kluwer Health ET - 35 DB - The Washington Manual DP - Unbound Medicine ER -