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Actinomyces is a microaerophilic gram-positive bacillus that usually causes soft-tissue swelling of the oropharynx, face, or neck, typically over or underneath the mandible (orocervicofacial actinomycosis). Pulmonary and gastrointestinal disease can also be seen. Classic infections are chronic, indurated soft tissue lesions associated with draining fistulae that pass through tissue planes. Unlike Nocardia, infection is not limited to immunocompromised hosts.