The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics helps you diagnose and treat hundreds of medical conditions. Consult clinical recommendations from a resource that has been trusted on the wards for 50+ years. Explore these free sample topics:
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- Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) is caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infections or by noninfectious causes such as medications.
- Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and requires immediate therapy without delay for diagnostic procedures. Rapid initiation of antimicrobial treatment decreases mortality.
- Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology in adults, followed by Neisseria meningitidis, group B Streptococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae. Listeria monocytogenes is more frequent in the elderly and in immunocompromised hosts.1
- Health care-associated meningitis (after neurosurgical procedures or head trauma) and intraventricular shunt infections are caused by staphylococci (S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci) and gram-negative bacilli.