General Principles

  • Antihypertensive agents that the patient has taken prior to admission for surgery may have an impact on the perioperative period.
    • When the patient is receiving β-blockers or clonidine chronically, withdrawal of these medications may result in tachycardia and rebound hypertension, respectively.
    • Evidence suggests that holding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on the day of surgery may reduce perioperative hypotension.1 These agents should not be held if given for HFrEF.

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