The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics helps you diagnose and treat hundreds of medical conditions. Consult clinical recommendations from a resource that has been trusted on the wards for 50+ years. Explore these free sample topics:
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Epidemiology and Etiology
Bladder cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies in the United States, with 81,190 estimated cases in 2018. Transitional cell or urothelial carcinoma is the most common histology. Tobacco smoking, chronic cystitis from long-term indwelling catheters, previous pelvic radiation or prolonged cyclophosphamide use, and exposure to benzene and other industrial chemicals are all risk factors. Bladder cancer is three times more common in men than in women and has a median age of 65 at diagnosis. Schistosoma haematobium infection is linked to squamous cell bladder cancer.