Esophageal Motor Disorders

General Principles


  • Achalasia is the most significant motor disorder of the esophagus, characterized by incomplete LES relaxation with swallowing and lack of adequate peristaltic contractions of the esophageal body.1,2
  • Esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction is a heterogeneous condition that includes incomplete achalasia-like disorders and structural processes (e.g., strictures, tight fundoplication, obstructing hiatus hernia).1
  • Esophageal hypermotility disorders consist of diffuse esophageal spasm, characterized by premature, nonperistaltic contractions in the esophageal body, and hypercontractile disorder with exaggerated esophageal body contractions.1
  • Esophageal hypomotility disorders are characterized by ineffective, or absent esophageal peristalsis, and can be associated with reflux symptoms and/or increased reflux burden.

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