Esophageal Motor Disorders
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- Achalasia is the most easily recognized motor disorder of the esophagus, characterized by failure of the LES to relax completely with swallowing and aperistalsis of the esophageal body (Am J Gastroenterol 2013;108:1238 [PMID:23877351]).
- Diffuse esophageal spasm is a spastic disorder characterized by premature, nonperistaltic contractions in the esophageal body (Gastroenterology 2011;141:469 [PMID:21679709]).
- Esophageal hypomotility disorders are characterized by fragmented, ineffective, or absent esophageal peristalsis, sometimes with LES hypomotility, leading to reflux symptoms.