Calcium

Calcium is a topic covered in the Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics.

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  • Calcium is essential for bone formation and neuromuscular function.
  • Approximately 99% of body calcium is in bone; most of the remaining 1% is in the ECF. Nearly 50% of serum calcium is ionized (free), whereas the remainder is complexed to albumin (40%) and anions such as phosphate (10%).
  • Calcium balance is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitriol.
    • PTH increases serum calcium by stimulating bone resorption, increasing calcium reclamation in the kidney, and promoting renal conversion of vitamin D to calcitriol. Serum calcium regulates PTH secretion by a negative feedback mechanism: Hypocalcemia stimulates and hypercalcemia suppresses PTH release.
    • Calcitriol [1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or 1,25(OH)2D3] is the active form of vitamin D. It stimulates intestinal absorption of calcium and is one of many factors that provide feedback to the parathyroid gland.

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  • Calcium is essential for bone formation and neuromuscular function.
  • Approximately 99% of body calcium is in bone; most of the remaining 1% is in the ECF. Nearly 50% of serum calcium is ionized (free), whereas the remainder is complexed to albumin (40%) and anions such as phosphate (10%).
  • Calcium balance is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitriol.
    • PTH increases serum calcium by stimulating bone resorption, increasing calcium reclamation in the kidney, and promoting renal conversion of vitamin D to calcitriol. Serum calcium regulates PTH secretion by a negative feedback mechanism: Hypocalcemia stimulates and hypercalcemia suppresses PTH release.
    • Calcitriol [1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or 1,25(OH)2D3] is the active form of vitamin D. It stimulates intestinal absorption of calcium and is one of many factors that provide feedback to the parathyroid gland.

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