Mucormycosis is a topic covered in the Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics.

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General Principles

  • Zygomycetes are a class of ubiquitous environmental fungi found in decaying organic substrates. They have been reclassified into two orders, Mucorales and Entomophthorales.
  • Mucorales contains the genera most commonly involved in human disease. These include Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp., and Cunninghamella spp. Disease manifestations vary depending on the affected organ, but the main clinical presentations include sinus (rhino-orbital or rhinocerebral), pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and disseminated infections. Angioinvasion and multiorgan infarction are rapidly progressive. Risk factors include immunosuppression, iron overload, high-dose glucocorticoid therapy, penetrating trauma, and poorly controlled diabetes, especially in the setting of ketoacidosis.

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