Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Epidemiology and Etiology

An estimated 42,810 patients will be diagnosed with liver and intrahepatic bile duct tumors in 2020 in the US.1 The main risk factors include chronic viral hepatitis B or C and alcohol abuse. With the increased use of hepatitis B vaccination and effective antiviral therapy against hepatitis C, it is possible that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may become the leading cause of liver cancer in the Western industrialized countries.2 Patients with hepatitis C typically develop HCC in the presence of cirrhosis, whereas patients with hepatitis B may develop HCC without cirrhosis. However, hepatic cirrhosis from any cause increases risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

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