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Epidemiology and Etiology
It is estimated that nearly 91,270 new cases of cutaneous melanoma were diagnosed in 2018 in the United States. Lifetime risk of melanoma is higher among Caucasians (1 in 50) compared to African Americans (1 in 1000). Exposure to UV radiation, increased number of nevi (>50), history of >5 atypical nevi, large congenital nevi, immune suppression, and familial risk (CDKN2A mutations) are known risk factors. Uveal (5%) and mucosal (1%) melanomas are rare.