The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics helps you diagnose and treat hundreds of medical conditions. Consult clinical recommendations from a resource that has been trusted on the wards for 50+ years. Explore these free sample topics:
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- The yield of standard diagnostic testing is relatively low.
- Common: neoplastic, autoimmune, viral, tuberculosis, bacterial (nontuberculous), uremia, post–cardiac surgery, idiopathic.
- Less common: trauma, post–myocardial infarction, drugs, dissecting aortic aneurysm.
The pericardium is a fibrous sac surrounding the heart consisting of two layers: a thin visceral layer attached to the pericardium and a thicker parietal layer. The pericardial space is normally filled with 15–50 mL of fluid, and the two layers slide smoothly against each other, allowing for normal expansion and contraction of the heart. Pericarditis occurs when these layers are inflamed.