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As microbial resistance is increasing among many pathogens, a review of institutional as well as local, regional, national, and global susceptibility trends can assist in the development of empiric therapy regimens. Antimicrobial therapy should be modified based on results of culture and sensitivity testing to definitive therapy agent(s) that have the narrowest spectrum possible. In many cases, shorter durations of therapy have been shown to be as effective as traditionally longer courses. As many oral agents have excellent bioavailability, switching from parenteral to oral therapy whenever possible is recommended. Several antibiotics have major drug interactions or require alternate dosing in renal or hepatic insufficiency, or both. For antiretroviral, antiparasitic, and antihepatitis agents, see Chapter 16, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Chapter 14, Treatment of Infectious Diseases; and Chapter 19, Liver Diseases, respectively.