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Cancer is one of leading causes of mortality both worldwide and in the United States, where approximately 610,000 deaths are estimated for 2018.1 The most common malignancies in the United States are lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer (Table 22-1). Cancer death rates have declined over the past decade owing to better uptake of screening strategies, advances in drug development, and availability of better supportive care. Improved understanding of the molecular pathways operative in cancer cells has led to the development of targeted agents, immunotherapy, and personalized treatment approaches associated with meaningful clinical benefit.

Table 22-1: Estimated New Cancer Cases and Rates of Death for Most Common Cancer Diagnoses in the United States for 2018
SitesNew CasesDeaths

Both SexesMaleFemaleTotal

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