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Long-term weight patterns and risk for cholecystectomy in women.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Obesity and rapid weight loss in obese persons are known risk factors for gallstones. However, the effect of intentional, long-term, moderate weight changes on the risk for gallstones is unclear.

OBJECTIVE

To study long-term weight patterns in a cohort of women and to examine the relation between weight pattern and risk for cholecystectomy.

DESIGN

Prospective cohort study.

SETTING

11 U.S. states.

PARTICIPANTS

47,153 female registered nurses who did not undergo cholecystectomy before 1988.

MEASUREMENTS

Cholecystectomy between 1988 and 1994 (ascertained by patient self-report).

RESULTS

During the exposure period (1972 to 1988), there was evidence of substantial variation in weight due to intentional weight loss during adulthood. Among cohort patients, 54.9% reported weight cycling with at least one episode of intentional weight loss associated with regain. Of the total cohort, 20.1% were light cyclers (5 to 9 lb of weight loss and gain), 18.8% were moderate cyclers (10 to 19 lb of weight loss and gain), and 16.0% were severe cyclers (> or = 20 lb of weight loss and gain). Net weight gain without cycling occurred in 29.3% of women; net weight loss without cycling was the least common pattern (4.6%). Only 11.1% of the cohort maintained weight within 5 lb over the 16-year period. In the study, 1751 women had undergone cholecystectomy between 1988 and 1994. Compared with weight maintainers, the relative risk for cholecystectomy (adjusted for body mass index, age, alcohol intake, fat intake, and smoking) was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.50) among light cyclers, 1.31 among moderate cyclers (CI, 1.05 to 1.64), and 1.68 among severe cyclers (CI, 1.34 to 2.10).

CONCLUSION

Weight cycling was highly prevalent in this large cohort of middle-aged women. The risk for cholecystectomy associated with weight cycling was substantial, independent of attained relative body weight.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    , , , ,

    Source

    Annals of internal medicine 130:6 1999 Mar 16 pg 471-7

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Body Mass Index
    Cholecystectomy
    Cholelithiasis
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Humans
    Middle Aged
    Multivariate Analysis
    Obesity
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Weight Gain
    Weight Loss

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10075614

    Citation

    Syngal, S, et al. "Long-term Weight Patterns and Risk for Cholecystectomy in Women." Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 130, no. 6, 1999, pp. 471-7.
    Syngal S, Coakley EH, Willett WC, et al. Long-term weight patterns and risk for cholecystectomy in women. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(6):471-7.
    Syngal, S., Coakley, E. H., Willett, W. C., Byers, T., Williamson, D. F., & Colditz, G. A. (1999). Long-term weight patterns and risk for cholecystectomy in women. Annals of Internal Medicine, 130(6), pp. 471-7.
    Syngal S, et al. Long-term Weight Patterns and Risk for Cholecystectomy in Women. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Mar 16;130(6):471-7. PubMed PMID: 10075614.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Long-term weight patterns and risk for cholecystectomy in women. AU - Syngal,S, AU - Coakley,E H, AU - Willett,W C, AU - Byers,T, AU - Williamson,D F, AU - Colditz,G A, PY - 1999/3/13/pubmed PY - 2000/9/8/medline PY - 1999/3/13/entrez SP - 471 EP - 7 JF - Annals of internal medicine JO - Ann. Intern. Med. VL - 130 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Obesity and rapid weight loss in obese persons are known risk factors for gallstones. However, the effect of intentional, long-term, moderate weight changes on the risk for gallstones is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To study long-term weight patterns in a cohort of women and to examine the relation between weight pattern and risk for cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 11 U.S. states. PARTICIPANTS: 47,153 female registered nurses who did not undergo cholecystectomy before 1988. MEASUREMENTS: Cholecystectomy between 1988 and 1994 (ascertained by patient self-report). RESULTS: During the exposure period (1972 to 1988), there was evidence of substantial variation in weight due to intentional weight loss during adulthood. Among cohort patients, 54.9% reported weight cycling with at least one episode of intentional weight loss associated with regain. Of the total cohort, 20.1% were light cyclers (5 to 9 lb of weight loss and gain), 18.8% were moderate cyclers (10 to 19 lb of weight loss and gain), and 16.0% were severe cyclers (> or = 20 lb of weight loss and gain). Net weight gain without cycling occurred in 29.3% of women; net weight loss without cycling was the least common pattern (4.6%). Only 11.1% of the cohort maintained weight within 5 lb over the 16-year period. In the study, 1751 women had undergone cholecystectomy between 1988 and 1994. Compared with weight maintainers, the relative risk for cholecystectomy (adjusted for body mass index, age, alcohol intake, fat intake, and smoking) was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.50) among light cyclers, 1.31 among moderate cyclers (CI, 1.05 to 1.64), and 1.68 among severe cyclers (CI, 1.34 to 2.10). CONCLUSION: Weight cycling was highly prevalent in this large cohort of middle-aged women. The risk for cholecystectomy associated with weight cycling was substantial, independent of attained relative body weight. SN - 0003-4819 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10075614/full_citation L2 - https://www.annals.org/article.aspx?volume=130&issue=6&page=471 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -