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Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is compelling evidence that estrogens influence breast cancer risk. Since the mid-1980s, dietary fat intervention studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of fat intake on endogenous estrogen levels. To further our understanding of the possible relationship between dietary fat and breast cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of dietary fat intervention studies that investigated serum estradiol levels, and we reviewed the nature of the evidence provided by prospective analytic studies of fat consumption and breast cancer risk.

METHODS

A computerized search of the English language literature on estrogen/estradiol and dietary fat intervention studies published from January 1966 through June 1998 was conducted using the MEDLINE database. Pooled estimates were derived from the change in estradiol levels associated with fat reduction from 13 studies. Analyses were conducted separately for premenopausal and postmenopausal women and in both groups combined.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Statistically significant reductions in serum estradiol levels of -7.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -11.7% to -2.9%) among premenopausal women and -23.0% (95% CI = -27.7% to -18.1%) among postmenopausal women were observed, with an overall -13.4% (95% CI = -16.6% to -10.1%) reduction observed. The greatest reductions occurred in two studies in which dietary fat was reduced to 10%-12% of calories compared with 18%-25% of calories in the other studies. A statistically significant reduction in estradiol levels of -6.6% (95% CI = -10.3% to -2.7%) remained after exclusion of these two studies. Review of prospective analytic epidemiologic studies that allowed for dietary measurement error suggests that the possibility that reducing fat consumption below 20% of calories will reduce breast cancer risk cannot be excluded.

IMPLICATIONS

Dietary fat reduction can result in a lowering of serum estradiol levels and such dietary modification may still offer an approach to breast cancer prevention.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Medical School, Los Angeles, USA. annawu@hsc.usc.edu

    ,

    Source

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91:6 1999 Mar 17 pg 529-34

    MeSH

    Adult
    Breast Neoplasms
    Dietary Fats
    Estradiol
    Female
    Humans
    MEDLINE
    Middle Aged
    Postmenopause
    Premenopause
    Risk
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10088623

    Citation

    Wu, A H., et al. "Meta-analysis: Dietary Fat Intake, Serum Estrogen Levels, and the Risk of Breast Cancer." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 91, no. 6, 1999, pp. 529-34.
    Wu AH, Pike MC, Stram DO. Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(6):529-34.
    Wu, A. H., Pike, M. C., & Stram, D. O. (1999). Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 91(6), pp. 529-34.
    Wu AH, Pike MC, Stram DO. Meta-analysis: Dietary Fat Intake, Serum Estrogen Levels, and the Risk of Breast Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Mar 17;91(6):529-34. PubMed PMID: 10088623.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer. AU - Wu,A H, AU - Pike,M C, AU - Stram,D O, PY - 1999/3/24/pubmed PY - 2000/4/25/medline PY - 1999/3/24/entrez SP - 529 EP - 34 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 91 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence that estrogens influence breast cancer risk. Since the mid-1980s, dietary fat intervention studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of fat intake on endogenous estrogen levels. To further our understanding of the possible relationship between dietary fat and breast cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of dietary fat intervention studies that investigated serum estradiol levels, and we reviewed the nature of the evidence provided by prospective analytic studies of fat consumption and breast cancer risk. METHODS: A computerized search of the English language literature on estrogen/estradiol and dietary fat intervention studies published from January 1966 through June 1998 was conducted using the MEDLINE database. Pooled estimates were derived from the change in estradiol levels associated with fat reduction from 13 studies. Analyses were conducted separately for premenopausal and postmenopausal women and in both groups combined. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Statistically significant reductions in serum estradiol levels of -7.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -11.7% to -2.9%) among premenopausal women and -23.0% (95% CI = -27.7% to -18.1%) among postmenopausal women were observed, with an overall -13.4% (95% CI = -16.6% to -10.1%) reduction observed. The greatest reductions occurred in two studies in which dietary fat was reduced to 10%-12% of calories compared with 18%-25% of calories in the other studies. A statistically significant reduction in estradiol levels of -6.6% (95% CI = -10.3% to -2.7%) remained after exclusion of these two studies. Review of prospective analytic epidemiologic studies that allowed for dietary measurement error suggests that the possibility that reducing fat consumption below 20% of calories will reduce breast cancer risk cannot be excluded. IMPLICATIONS: Dietary fat reduction can result in a lowering of serum estradiol levels and such dietary modification may still offer an approach to breast cancer prevention. SN - 0027-8874 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10088623/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/91.6.529 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -