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Cigarette smoking.
J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91(16):1365-75JNCI

Abstract

Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Dramatic changes in the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the second half of this century in the United States (i.e., a reduction among men and an increase among women) have reduced current smoking levels to approximately one quarter of the adult population and have reduced differences in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable diseases between the sexes. Current smoking in the United States is positively associated with younger age, lower income, reduced educational achievement, and disadvantaged neighborhood environment. Daily smokers smoke cigarettes to maintain nicotine levels in the brain, primarily to avoid the negative effects of nicotine withdrawal, but also to modulate mood. Regular smokers exhibit higher and lower levels of stress and arousal, respectively, than nonsmokers, as well as higher impulsivity and neuroticism trait values. Nicotine dependence is the single most common psychiatric diagnosis in the United States, and substance abuse, major depression, and anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric comorbid conditions associated with nicotine dependence. Studies in twins have implicated genetic factors that explain most of the variability in vulnerability to smoking and in persistence of the smoking phenotype. Future research into the causes of smoking must take into account these associated demographics, social factors, comorbid psychiatric conditions, and genetic factors to understand this complex human behavior.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Bergena@epndce.nci.nih.govNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10451441

Citation

Bergen, A W., and N Caporaso. "Cigarette Smoking." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 91, no. 16, 1999, pp. 1365-75.
Bergen AW, Caporaso N. Cigarette smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(16):1365-75.
Bergen, A. W., & Caporaso, N. (1999). Cigarette smoking. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 91(16), pp. 1365-75.
Bergen AW, Caporaso N. Cigarette Smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Aug 18;91(16):1365-75. PubMed PMID: 10451441.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cigarette smoking. AU - Bergen,A W, AU - Caporaso,N, PY - 1999/8/19/pubmed PY - 1999/8/19/medline PY - 1999/8/19/entrez SP - 1365 EP - 75 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 91 IS - 16 N2 - Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Dramatic changes in the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the second half of this century in the United States (i.e., a reduction among men and an increase among women) have reduced current smoking levels to approximately one quarter of the adult population and have reduced differences in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable diseases between the sexes. Current smoking in the United States is positively associated with younger age, lower income, reduced educational achievement, and disadvantaged neighborhood environment. Daily smokers smoke cigarettes to maintain nicotine levels in the brain, primarily to avoid the negative effects of nicotine withdrawal, but also to modulate mood. Regular smokers exhibit higher and lower levels of stress and arousal, respectively, than nonsmokers, as well as higher impulsivity and neuroticism trait values. Nicotine dependence is the single most common psychiatric diagnosis in the United States, and substance abuse, major depression, and anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric comorbid conditions associated with nicotine dependence. Studies in twins have implicated genetic factors that explain most of the variability in vulnerability to smoking and in persistence of the smoking phenotype. Future research into the causes of smoking must take into account these associated demographics, social factors, comorbid psychiatric conditions, and genetic factors to understand this complex human behavior. SN - 0027-8874 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10451441/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/91.16.1365 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -