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Dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans.

Abstract

Here, we compared the traditional nutritional definition of the dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans with categorizations based on amino acid metabolism and function. The three views lead to somewhat different interpretations. From a nutritional perspective, it is quite clear that some amino acids are absolute dietary necessities if normal growth is to be maintained. Even so, growth responses to deficiencies of dispensable amino acids can be found in the literature. From a strictly metabolic perspective, there are only three indispensable amino acids (lysine, threonine and tryptophan) and two dispensable amino acids (glutamate and serine). In addition, a consideration of in vivo amino acid metabolism leads to the definition of a third class of amino acids, termed conditionally essential, whose synthesis can be carried out by mammals but can be limited by a variety of factors. These factors include the dietary supply of the appropriate precursors and the maturity and health of the individual. From a functional perspective, all amino acids are essential, and an argument in favor of the idea of the critical importance of nonessential and conditionally essential amino acids to physiological function is developed.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    U.S. Department of Agriculture/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Source

    The Journal of nutrition 130:7 2000 Jul pg 1835S-40S

    MeSH

    Amino Acids
    Animals
    Dietary Proteins
    Humans
    Nutritional Requirements
    Structure-Activity Relationship

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10867060

    Citation

    Reeds, P J.. "Dispensable and Indispensable Amino Acids for Humans." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 7, 2000, 1835S-40S.
    Reeds PJ. Dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans. J Nutr. 2000;130(7):1835S-40S.
    Reeds, P. J. (2000). Dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 130(7), 1835S-40S.
    Reeds PJ. Dispensable and Indispensable Amino Acids for Humans. J Nutr. 2000;130(7):1835S-40S. PubMed PMID: 10867060.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans. A1 - Reeds,P J, PY - 2000/6/27/pubmed PY - 2000/8/6/medline PY - 2000/6/27/entrez SP - 1835S EP - 40S JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 130 IS - 7 N2 - Here, we compared the traditional nutritional definition of the dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans with categorizations based on amino acid metabolism and function. The three views lead to somewhat different interpretations. From a nutritional perspective, it is quite clear that some amino acids are absolute dietary necessities if normal growth is to be maintained. Even so, growth responses to deficiencies of dispensable amino acids can be found in the literature. From a strictly metabolic perspective, there are only three indispensable amino acids (lysine, threonine and tryptophan) and two dispensable amino acids (glutamate and serine). In addition, a consideration of in vivo amino acid metabolism leads to the definition of a third class of amino acids, termed conditionally essential, whose synthesis can be carried out by mammals but can be limited by a variety of factors. These factors include the dietary supply of the appropriate precursors and the maturity and health of the individual. From a functional perspective, all amino acids are essential, and an argument in favor of the idea of the critical importance of nonessential and conditionally essential amino acids to physiological function is developed. SN - 0022-3166 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10867060/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/130.7.1835S DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -