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Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Aug; 108(8):679-84.EH

Abstract

Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of California San Francisco and Berkeley, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California, USA. hdbacker@aol.comNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10964787

Citation

Backer, H, and J Hollowell. "Use of Iodine for Water Disinfection: Iodine Toxicity and Maximum Recommended Dose." Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 108, no. 8, 2000, pp. 679-84.
Backer H, Hollowell J. Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108(8):679-84.
Backer, H., & Hollowell, J. (2000). Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(8), 679-84.
Backer H, Hollowell J. Use of Iodine for Water Disinfection: Iodine Toxicity and Maximum Recommended Dose. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108(8):679-84. PubMed PMID: 10964787.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose. AU - Backer,H, AU - Hollowell,J, PY - 2000/8/31/pubmed PY - 2001/8/17/medline PY - 2000/8/31/entrez SP - 679 EP - 84 JF - Environmental health perspectives JO - Environ. Health Perspect. VL - 108 IS - 8 N2 - Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. SN - 0091-6765 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10964787/full_citation L2 - https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/full/10.1289/ehp.00108679?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -