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Risk factors for poor iron status in British toddlers: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

: To examine risk factors for poor iron status in British toddlers.

DESIGN

: National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of children aged 1.5-4.5 years.

SETTING

: Mainland Britain, 1992/93.

SUBJECTS

: Of the 1859 children whose parents or guardians were interviewed, a weighed dietary intake was provided for 1675, and a blood sample obtained from 1003.

RESULTS

: Mean haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin levels were significantly lower in younger (1.5-2.5 years) than in older (3.5-4.5 years) children, with boys having significantly lower ferritin levels than girls. Poor iron status ferritin <10 microg l-1, or low values for both indices) was associated with lower socioeconomic and employment status. Iron status was directly associated with meat and fruit consumption and inversely with that of milk and milk products, after adjustment for age and gender. The latter association remained significant after further adjustment for sociodemographic variables, energy intake and body weight. Children consuming >400 g day-1 of milk and cream were less likely to consume foods in other groups, with those also consuming little meat, fish, fruit and nuts at greatest risk of poor iron status. Few associations were observed between poor iron status and individual nutrient intakes, and iron status was not associated with either iron intake or with consumption of a vegetarian diet.

CONCLUSIONS

: Overdependence on milk, where it displaces iron-rich or iron-enhancing foods, may put toddlers at increased risk of poor iron status. However, this becomes non-significant when moderate-to-high amounts of foods known to enhance iron status (e.g. meat and/or fruit) are also consumed. Milk consumption in this age group should ideally be part of a mixed and balanced diet including all food groups, and particularly lean meat (or other iron-rich or fortified foods) and fruit. This is particularly relevant for households of lower socioeconomic and employment status.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK. thane@mrc-hnr.cam.ac.uk

    , , ,

    Source

    Public health nutrition 3:4 2000 Dec pg 433-40

    MeSH

    Animals
    Child, Preschool
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Deficiency Diseases
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Humans
    Infant
    Iron
    Male
    Milk
    Risk Factors
    Socioeconomic Factors
    United Kingdom

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11135798

    Citation

    Thane, C W., et al. "Risk Factors for Poor Iron Status in British Toddlers: Further Analysis of Data From the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Children Aged 1.5-4.5 Years." Public Health Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 4, 2000, pp. 433-40.
    Thane CW, Walmsley CM, Bates CJ, et al. Risk factors for poor iron status in British toddlers: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. Public Health Nutr. 2000;3(4):433-40.
    Thane, C. W., Walmsley, C. M., Bates, C. J., Prentice, A., & Cole, T. J. (2000). Risk factors for poor iron status in British toddlers: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. Public Health Nutrition, 3(4), pp. 433-40.
    Thane CW, et al. Risk Factors for Poor Iron Status in British Toddlers: Further Analysis of Data From the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Children Aged 1.5-4.5 Years. Public Health Nutr. 2000;3(4):433-40. PubMed PMID: 11135798.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Risk factors for poor iron status in British toddlers: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. AU - Thane,C W, AU - Walmsley,C M, AU - Bates,C J, AU - Prentice,A, AU - Cole,T J, PY - 2001/1/3/pubmed PY - 2001/2/28/medline PY - 2001/1/3/entrez SP - 433 EP - 40 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 3 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: : To examine risk factors for poor iron status in British toddlers. DESIGN: : National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. SETTING: : Mainland Britain, 1992/93. SUBJECTS: : Of the 1859 children whose parents or guardians were interviewed, a weighed dietary intake was provided for 1675, and a blood sample obtained from 1003. RESULTS: : Mean haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin levels were significantly lower in younger (1.5-2.5 years) than in older (3.5-4.5 years) children, with boys having significantly lower ferritin levels than girls. Poor iron status ferritin <10 microg l-1, or low values for both indices) was associated with lower socioeconomic and employment status. Iron status was directly associated with meat and fruit consumption and inversely with that of milk and milk products, after adjustment for age and gender. The latter association remained significant after further adjustment for sociodemographic variables, energy intake and body weight. Children consuming >400 g day-1 of milk and cream were less likely to consume foods in other groups, with those also consuming little meat, fish, fruit and nuts at greatest risk of poor iron status. Few associations were observed between poor iron status and individual nutrient intakes, and iron status was not associated with either iron intake or with consumption of a vegetarian diet. CONCLUSIONS: : Overdependence on milk, where it displaces iron-rich or iron-enhancing foods, may put toddlers at increased risk of poor iron status. However, this becomes non-significant when moderate-to-high amounts of foods known to enhance iron status (e.g. meat and/or fruit) are also consumed. Milk consumption in this age group should ideally be part of a mixed and balanced diet including all food groups, and particularly lean meat (or other iron-rich or fortified foods) and fruit. This is particularly relevant for households of lower socioeconomic and employment status. SN - 1368-9800 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11135798/full_citation L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980000000501/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -