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Human health hazards associated with the administration of antimicrobials to slaughter animals. Part II. An assessment of the risks of resistant bacteria in pigs and pork.

Abstract

Risks for the consumer regarding the acquisition of resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes via the consumption of pork are discussed. In general, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli that originate from animals do not easily transfer their resistance genes to the resident intestinal flora of humans. The prevalence of resistant E. coli in humans seems more associated with being a vegetarian (odds ratio (OR) 1.89) than with the consumption of meat and meat products. Other risk factors are treatment with antimicrobials (OR 2-5), becoming hospitalized (OR 5.93), or working in a health setting (OR 4.38). In the Netherlands, annually an estimated 45,000 people (0-150,000) become a carrier of resistant E. coli and/or resistance genes that ori ginate from pigs, while an estimated 345,000 persons (175,000-600,000) become a carrier of resistant E. coli and/or resistance genes that originate from hospitals, e.g. other patients. Any problems with resistant Salmonella spp. that stem from pigs are, in fact, an integral part of the total problem of food-borne salmonellosis. Sometimes there are outbreaks of a specific multi-resistant clone of S. typhimurium that causes problems in both farm animals and humans. The probability that in the next 30 years there is no or maximally one outbreak of a specific clone that originates from pig herds is estimated at about 75%. Antimicrobials used as a growth promoter can have a measurable influence on the prevalence of resistant bacteria. The likely chain of events regarding avoparcin and the selection and dissemination of resistance against vancomycin in the enterococci gives the impression that the impact of the use of antimicrobials in animals on the prevalence of resistance in humans is largely determined by whether resistance genes are, or become, located on a self-transferable transposon. Furthermore, consumer health risks of antimicrobials used in slaughter pigs are mainly determined by the selection and dissemination of bacterial resistance and much less by the toxicological properties of any residues in pork. It is also concluded that most of the problems with resistant bacteria in humans are associated with the medical use of antimicrobials, and that the impact of particularly the veterinary use of antimicrobials is limited. However, the impact of antimicrobials used as a feed additive appears to be much greater than that of antimicrobials used for strictly veterinary purposes. The use of antimicrobials as a feed additive should therefore be seriously reconsidered.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of the Science of Food of Animal Origin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. b.r.berends@vvdo.vet.uu.nl

    , ,

    Source

    The Veterinary quarterly 23:1 2001 Jan pg 10-21

    MeSH

    Animals
    Anti-Bacterial Agents
    Bacteria
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Drug Resistance, Microbial
    Genes, MDR
    Humans
    Intestines
    Meat
    Netherlands
    Odds Ratio
    Public Health
    Risk Assessment
    Risk Factors
    Swine

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11205995

    Citation

    Berends, B R., et al. "Human Health Hazards Associated With the Administration of Antimicrobials to Slaughter Animals. Part II. an Assessment of the Risks of Resistant Bacteria in Pigs and Pork." The Veterinary Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 1, 2001, pp. 10-21.
    Berends BR, van den Bogaard AE, Van Knapen F, et al. Human health hazards associated with the administration of antimicrobials to slaughter animals. Part II. An assessment of the risks of resistant bacteria in pigs and pork. Vet Q. 2001;23(1):10-21.
    Berends, B. R., van den Bogaard, A. E., Van Knapen, F., & Snijders, J. M. (2001). Human health hazards associated with the administration of antimicrobials to slaughter animals. Part II. An assessment of the risks of resistant bacteria in pigs and pork. The Veterinary Quarterly, 23(1), pp. 10-21.
    Berends BR, et al. Human Health Hazards Associated With the Administration of Antimicrobials to Slaughter Animals. Part II. an Assessment of the Risks of Resistant Bacteria in Pigs and Pork. Vet Q. 2001;23(1):10-21. PubMed PMID: 11205995.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Human health hazards associated with the administration of antimicrobials to slaughter animals. Part II. An assessment of the risks of resistant bacteria in pigs and pork. AU - Berends,B R, AU - van den Bogaard,A E, AU - Van Knapen,F, AU - Snijders,J M, PY - 2001/2/24/pubmed PY - 2001/6/29/medline PY - 2001/2/24/entrez SP - 10 EP - 21 JF - The Veterinary quarterly JO - Vet Q VL - 23 IS - 1 N2 - Risks for the consumer regarding the acquisition of resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes via the consumption of pork are discussed. In general, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli that originate from animals do not easily transfer their resistance genes to the resident intestinal flora of humans. The prevalence of resistant E. coli in humans seems more associated with being a vegetarian (odds ratio (OR) 1.89) than with the consumption of meat and meat products. Other risk factors are treatment with antimicrobials (OR 2-5), becoming hospitalized (OR 5.93), or working in a health setting (OR 4.38). In the Netherlands, annually an estimated 45,000 people (0-150,000) become a carrier of resistant E. coli and/or resistance genes that ori ginate from pigs, while an estimated 345,000 persons (175,000-600,000) become a carrier of resistant E. coli and/or resistance genes that originate from hospitals, e.g. other patients. Any problems with resistant Salmonella spp. that stem from pigs are, in fact, an integral part of the total problem of food-borne salmonellosis. Sometimes there are outbreaks of a specific multi-resistant clone of S. typhimurium that causes problems in both farm animals and humans. The probability that in the next 30 years there is no or maximally one outbreak of a specific clone that originates from pig herds is estimated at about 75%. Antimicrobials used as a growth promoter can have a measurable influence on the prevalence of resistant bacteria. The likely chain of events regarding avoparcin and the selection and dissemination of resistance against vancomycin in the enterococci gives the impression that the impact of the use of antimicrobials in animals on the prevalence of resistance in humans is largely determined by whether resistance genes are, or become, located on a self-transferable transposon. Furthermore, consumer health risks of antimicrobials used in slaughter pigs are mainly determined by the selection and dissemination of bacterial resistance and much less by the toxicological properties of any residues in pork. It is also concluded that most of the problems with resistant bacteria in humans are associated with the medical use of antimicrobials, and that the impact of particularly the veterinary use of antimicrobials is limited. However, the impact of antimicrobials used as a feed additive appears to be much greater than that of antimicrobials used for strictly veterinary purposes. The use of antimicrobials as a feed additive should therefore be seriously reconsidered. SN - 0165-2176 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11205995/full_citation L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01652176.2001.9695069 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -