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Dietary fiber and weight regulation.

Abstract

The influence of dietary fiber on energy regulation remains controversial. This review summarizes published studies on the effects of dietary fiber on hunger, satiety, energy intake, and body composition in healthy individuals. Under conditions of fixed energy intake, the majority of studies indicate that an increase in either soluble or insoluble fiber intake increases postmeal satiety and decreases subsequent hunger. When energy intake is ad libitum, mean values for published studies indicate that consumption of an additional 14 g/day fiber for >2 days is associated with a 10% decrease in energy intake and body weight loss of 1.9 kg over 3.8 months. Furthermore, obese individuals may exhibit a greater suppression of energy intake and body weight loss (mean energy intake in all studies was reduced to 82% by higher fiber intake in overweight/obese people versus 94% in lean people; body weight loss was 2.4 kg versus 0.8 kg). These amounts are very similar to the mean changes in energy intake and body weight changes observed when dietary fat content is lowered from 38% to 24% of energy intake in controlled studies of nonobese and obese subjects. The observed changes in energy intake and body weight occur both when the fiber is from naturally high-fiber foods and when it is from a fiber supplement. In view of the fact that mean dietary fiber intake in the United States is currently only 15 g/day (i.e., approximately half the American Heart Association recommendation of 25-30 g/day), efforts to increase dietary fiber in individuals consuming <25 g/day may help to decrease the currently high national prevalence of obesity.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    ,

    Source

    Nutrition reviews 59:5 2001 May pg 129-39

    MeSH

    Body Composition
    Body Weight
    Dietary Fiber
    Energy Intake
    Energy Metabolism
    Humans
    Hunger
    Obesity
    Satiation

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11396693

    Citation

    Howarth, N C., et al. "Dietary Fiber and Weight Regulation." Nutrition Reviews, vol. 59, no. 5, 2001, pp. 129-39.
    Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev. 2001;59(5):129-39.
    Howarth, N. C., Saltzman, E., & Roberts, S. B. (2001). Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutrition Reviews, 59(5), pp. 129-39.
    Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Dietary Fiber and Weight Regulation. Nutr Rev. 2001;59(5):129-39. PubMed PMID: 11396693.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary fiber and weight regulation. AU - Howarth,N C, AU - Saltzman,E, AU - Roberts,S B, PY - 2001/6/9/pubmed PY - 2001/7/6/medline PY - 2001/6/9/entrez SP - 129 EP - 39 JF - Nutrition reviews JO - Nutr. Rev. VL - 59 IS - 5 N2 - The influence of dietary fiber on energy regulation remains controversial. This review summarizes published studies on the effects of dietary fiber on hunger, satiety, energy intake, and body composition in healthy individuals. Under conditions of fixed energy intake, the majority of studies indicate that an increase in either soluble or insoluble fiber intake increases postmeal satiety and decreases subsequent hunger. When energy intake is ad libitum, mean values for published studies indicate that consumption of an additional 14 g/day fiber for >2 days is associated with a 10% decrease in energy intake and body weight loss of 1.9 kg over 3.8 months. Furthermore, obese individuals may exhibit a greater suppression of energy intake and body weight loss (mean energy intake in all studies was reduced to 82% by higher fiber intake in overweight/obese people versus 94% in lean people; body weight loss was 2.4 kg versus 0.8 kg). These amounts are very similar to the mean changes in energy intake and body weight changes observed when dietary fat content is lowered from 38% to 24% of energy intake in controlled studies of nonobese and obese subjects. The observed changes in energy intake and body weight occur both when the fiber is from naturally high-fiber foods and when it is from a fiber supplement. In view of the fact that mean dietary fiber intake in the United States is currently only 15 g/day (i.e., approximately half the American Heart Association recommendation of 25-30 g/day), efforts to increase dietary fiber in individuals consuming <25 g/day may help to decrease the currently high national prevalence of obesity. SN - 0029-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11396693/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2001.tb07001.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -