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Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A high calcium intake, mainly from dairy products, may increase prostate cancer risk by lowering concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], a hormone thought to protect against prostate cancer. The results of epidemiologic studies of this hypothesis are inconclusive.

OBJECTIVE

We investigated the association between dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study, a cohort of male US physicians.

DESIGN

At baseline, the men answered abbreviated dietary questionnaires. During 11 y of follow-up, we documented 1012 incident cases of prostate cancer among 20885 men. We estimated dairy calcium intake on the basis of consumption of 5 major dairy products and used logistic regression to estimate relative risk.

RESULTS

At baseline, men who consumed >600 mg Ca/d from skim milk had lower plasma 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations than did those consuming < or =150 mg Ca/d [71 compared with 85 pmol/L (30.06 compared with 35.64 pg/mL); P = 0.005]. Compared with men consuming < or =0.5 daily servings of dairy products, those consuming >2.5 servings had a multivariate relative risk of prostate cancer of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) after adjustment for baseline age, body mass index, smoking, exercise, and randomized treatment assignment in the original placebo-controlled trial. Compared with men consuming < or =150 mg Ca/d from dairy products, men consuming >600 mg/d had a 32% higher risk of prostate cancer (95% CI: 1.08, 1.63).

CONCLUSIONS

These results support the hypothesis that dairy products and calcium are associated with a greater risk of prostate cancer.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA. june.chan@channing.harvard.edu

    , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Calcium, Dietary
    Dairy Products
    Diet Surveys
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Physicians
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11566656

    Citation

    Chan, J M., et al. "Dairy Products, Calcium, and Prostate Cancer Risk in the Physicians' Health Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 74, no. 4, 2001, pp. 549-54.
    Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, et al. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(4):549-54.
    Chan, J. M., Stampfer, M. J., Ma, J., Gann, P. H., Gaziano, J. M., & Giovannucci, E. L. (2001). Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74(4), pp. 549-54.
    Chan JM, et al. Dairy Products, Calcium, and Prostate Cancer Risk in the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(4):549-54. PubMed PMID: 11566656.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study. AU - Chan,J M, AU - Stampfer,M J, AU - Ma,J, AU - Gann,P H, AU - Gaziano,J M, AU - Giovannucci,E L, PY - 2001/9/22/pubmed PY - 2001/10/12/medline PY - 2001/9/22/entrez SP - 549 EP - 54 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 74 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: A high calcium intake, mainly from dairy products, may increase prostate cancer risk by lowering concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], a hormone thought to protect against prostate cancer. The results of epidemiologic studies of this hypothesis are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study, a cohort of male US physicians. DESIGN: At baseline, the men answered abbreviated dietary questionnaires. During 11 y of follow-up, we documented 1012 incident cases of prostate cancer among 20885 men. We estimated dairy calcium intake on the basis of consumption of 5 major dairy products and used logistic regression to estimate relative risk. RESULTS: At baseline, men who consumed >600 mg Ca/d from skim milk had lower plasma 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations than did those consuming < or =150 mg Ca/d [71 compared with 85 pmol/L (30.06 compared with 35.64 pg/mL); P = 0.005]. Compared with men consuming < or =0.5 daily servings of dairy products, those consuming >2.5 servings had a multivariate relative risk of prostate cancer of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) after adjustment for baseline age, body mass index, smoking, exercise, and randomized treatment assignment in the original placebo-controlled trial. Compared with men consuming < or =150 mg Ca/d from dairy products, men consuming >600 mg/d had a 32% higher risk of prostate cancer (95% CI: 1.08, 1.63). CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that dairy products and calcium are associated with a greater risk of prostate cancer. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11566656/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/74.4.549 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -