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A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Some data, including our findings from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) from 1986 through January 31, 1992, suggest that frequent intake of tomato products or lycopene, a carotenoid from tomatoes, is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Overall, however, the data are inconclusive. We evaluated additional data from the HPFS to determine if the association would persist.

METHODS

We ascertained prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 1998, among 47 365 HPFS participants who completed dietary questionnaires in 1986, 1990, and 1994. We used pooled logistic regression to compute multivariate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

From 1986 through January 31, 1998, 2481 men in the study developed prostate cancer. Results for the period from 1992 through 1998 confirmed our previous findings---that frequent tomato or lycopene intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, for the entire period of 1986 through 1998, using the cumulative average of the three dietary questionnaires, lycopene intake was associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR for high versus low quintiles = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.96; P(trend) =.003); intake of tomato sauce, the primary source of bioavailable lycopene, was associated with an even greater reduction in prostate cancer risk (RR for 2+ servings/week versus <1 serving/month = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.90; P(trend)<.001), especially for extraprostatic cancers (RR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.99). These associations persisted in analyses controlling for fruit and vegetable consumption and for olive oil use (a marker for Mediterranean diet) and were observed separately in men of Southern European or other Caucasian ancestry.

CONCLUSION

Frequent consumption of tomato products is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. The magnitude of the association was moderate enough that it could be missed in a small study or one with substantial errors in measurement or based on a single dietary assessment.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. edward.giovannucci@channing.harvard.edu

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Factors
    Aged
    Anticarcinogenic Agents
    Antioxidants
    Biological Availability
    Carotenoids
    Europe
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Feeding Behavior
    Food Handling
    Humans
    Logistic Models
    Lycopene
    Lycopersicon esculentum
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Multivariate Analysis
    Neoplasm Staging
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Research Design
    Risk
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11880478

    Citation

    Giovannucci, Edward, et al. "A Prospective Study of Tomato Products, Lycopene, and Prostate Cancer Risk." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 94, no. 5, 2002, pp. 391-8.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, et al. A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(5):391-8.
    Giovannucci, E., Rimm, E. B., Liu, Y., Stampfer, M. J., & Willett, W. C. (2002). A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 94(5), pp. 391-8.
    Giovannucci E, et al. A Prospective Study of Tomato Products, Lycopene, and Prostate Cancer Risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Mar 6;94(5):391-8. PubMed PMID: 11880478.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. AU - Giovannucci,Edward, AU - Rimm,Eric B, AU - Liu,Yan, AU - Stampfer,Meir J, AU - Willett,Walter C, PY - 2002/3/7/pubmed PY - 2002/3/23/medline PY - 2002/3/7/entrez SP - 391 EP - 8 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 94 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Some data, including our findings from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) from 1986 through January 31, 1992, suggest that frequent intake of tomato products or lycopene, a carotenoid from tomatoes, is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Overall, however, the data are inconclusive. We evaluated additional data from the HPFS to determine if the association would persist. METHODS: We ascertained prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 1998, among 47 365 HPFS participants who completed dietary questionnaires in 1986, 1990, and 1994. We used pooled logistic regression to compute multivariate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: From 1986 through January 31, 1998, 2481 men in the study developed prostate cancer. Results for the period from 1992 through 1998 confirmed our previous findings---that frequent tomato or lycopene intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, for the entire period of 1986 through 1998, using the cumulative average of the three dietary questionnaires, lycopene intake was associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR for high versus low quintiles = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.96; P(trend) =.003); intake of tomato sauce, the primary source of bioavailable lycopene, was associated with an even greater reduction in prostate cancer risk (RR for 2+ servings/week versus <1 serving/month = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.90; P(trend)<.001), especially for extraprostatic cancers (RR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.99). These associations persisted in analyses controlling for fruit and vegetable consumption and for olive oil use (a marker for Mediterranean diet) and were observed separately in men of Southern European or other Caucasian ancestry. CONCLUSION: Frequent consumption of tomato products is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. The magnitude of the association was moderate enough that it could be missed in a small study or one with substantial errors in measurement or based on a single dietary assessment. SN - 0027-8874 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11880478/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/94.5.391 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -