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Body composition in children with sickle cell disease.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Impaired growth, poor nutritional status, and delayed skeletal and sexual maturation are common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), yet the nature of associated body-composition deficits has not been fully described.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to assess growth, nutritional status, and body composition in 36 African American children with type SS SCD (20 females and 16 males) and 30 healthy control children (15 females and 15 males) of similar age (5-18 y) and ethnicity.

DESIGN

Height, weight, bone age, pubertal status, skinfold thickness, and arm circumference were assessed. Height and weight were converted to z scores by comparison with national reference data and skinfold-thickness measurements were converted to z scores by comparison with African American- specific reference data. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated by using 4 methods. Prepubertal children, pubertal males, and pubertal females were analyzed separately.

RESULTS

Relative to the control subjects and to a national sample, children with SCD had significantly lower z scores for weight, height, arm circumference, and upper arm fat and muscle areas. Relative skeletal maturation was significantly delayed. After adjustment for age, children with SCD had significantly lower FM (prepubertal children and pubertal males only) and FFM (all 3 groups).

CONCLUSIONS

Children with SCD have impaired growth, delayed puberty, and poor nutritional status. Low z scores for upper arm fat area indicate deficits in fat (energy) stores, and low FFM coupled with low upper arm muscle area indicate muscle wasting and low protein stores. These body-composition abnormalities suggest that the nutritional needs of the African American children with SCD were not being met.

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    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Age Determination by Skeleton
    Anemia, Sickle Cell
    Body Composition
    Body Height
    Body Weight
    Bone Development
    Child
    Child, Preschool
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Nutritional Status
    Puberty

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12081838

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Body composition in children with sickle cell disease. AU - Barden,Elizabeth M, AU - Kawchak,Deborah A, AU - Ohene-Frempong,Kwaku, AU - Stallings,Virginia A, AU - Zemel,Babette S, PY - 2002/6/26/pubmed PY - 2002/7/18/medline PY - 2002/6/26/entrez SP - 218 EP - 25 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 76 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Impaired growth, poor nutritional status, and delayed skeletal and sexual maturation are common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), yet the nature of associated body-composition deficits has not been fully described. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess growth, nutritional status, and body composition in 36 African American children with type SS SCD (20 females and 16 males) and 30 healthy control children (15 females and 15 males) of similar age (5-18 y) and ethnicity. DESIGN: Height, weight, bone age, pubertal status, skinfold thickness, and arm circumference were assessed. Height and weight were converted to z scores by comparison with national reference data and skinfold-thickness measurements were converted to z scores by comparison with African American- specific reference data. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated by using 4 methods. Prepubertal children, pubertal males, and pubertal females were analyzed separately. RESULTS: Relative to the control subjects and to a national sample, children with SCD had significantly lower z scores for weight, height, arm circumference, and upper arm fat and muscle areas. Relative skeletal maturation was significantly delayed. After adjustment for age, children with SCD had significantly lower FM (prepubertal children and pubertal males only) and FFM (all 3 groups). CONCLUSIONS: Children with SCD have impaired growth, delayed puberty, and poor nutritional status. Low z scores for upper arm fat area indicate deficits in fat (energy) stores, and low FFM coupled with low upper arm muscle area indicate muscle wasting and low protein stores. These body-composition abnormalities suggest that the nutritional needs of the African American children with SCD were not being met. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12081838/full_citation L2 - http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12081838 ER -