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Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases.

Abstract

Among the fatty acids, it is the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which possess the most potent immunomodulatory activities, and among the omega-3 PUFA, those from fish oil-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)--are more biologically potent than alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Some of the effects of omega-3 PUFA are brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, and other effects are elicited by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms, including actions upon intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity and gene expression. Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Coronary heart disease, major depression, aging and cancer are characterized by an increased level of interleukin 1 (IL-1), a proinflammatory cytokine. Similarly, arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and lupus erythematosis are autoimmune diseases characterized by a high level of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids. There have been a number of clinical trials assessing the benefits of dietary supplementation with fish oils in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in humans, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and migraine headaches. Many of the placebo-controlled trials of fish oil in chronic inflammatory diseases reveal significant benefit, including decreased disease activity and a lowered use of anti-inflammatory drugs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, Washington, DC 20009, USA. cgnh@bellatlantic.net

Source

MeSH

Animals
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
Asthma
Autoimmune Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cytokines
Depressive Disorder, Major
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Fatty Acids, Omega-3
Fatty Acids, Omega-6
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Fish Oils
Humans
Inflammation
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Prostaglandins
Psoriasis
alpha-Linolenic Acid

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12480795

Citation

Simopoulos, Artemis P.. "Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases." Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 21, no. 6, 2002, pp. 495-505.
Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(6):495-505.
Simopoulos, A. P. (2002). Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 21(6), pp. 495-505.
Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(6):495-505. PubMed PMID: 12480795.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. A1 - Simopoulos,Artemis P, PY - 2002/12/14/pubmed PY - 2003/5/7/medline PY - 2002/12/14/entrez SP - 495 EP - 505 JF - Journal of the American College of Nutrition JO - J Am Coll Nutr VL - 21 IS - 6 N2 - Among the fatty acids, it is the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which possess the most potent immunomodulatory activities, and among the omega-3 PUFA, those from fish oil-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)--are more biologically potent than alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Some of the effects of omega-3 PUFA are brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, and other effects are elicited by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms, including actions upon intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity and gene expression. Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Coronary heart disease, major depression, aging and cancer are characterized by an increased level of interleukin 1 (IL-1), a proinflammatory cytokine. Similarly, arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and lupus erythematosis are autoimmune diseases characterized by a high level of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids. There have been a number of clinical trials assessing the benefits of dietary supplementation with fish oils in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in humans, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and migraine headaches. Many of the placebo-controlled trials of fish oil in chronic inflammatory diseases reveal significant benefit, including decreased disease activity and a lowered use of anti-inflammatory drugs. SN - 0731-5724 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12480795/full_citation L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/675 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -